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Wikipedia se Inhoudsopgawe: Hoofpunte

Dit is 'n uiteensetting van kennis, waar die vakgebied se hoofpunte gelys word op Wikipedia. Hoofpunte is 'n tipe boomstruktuur, wat wys op 'n oogopslag hoe onderwerpe verwant aan mekaar is. Hoofpunte is nuttig om die algehele struktuur te leer en die verwante onderwerpe te ontdek. Onderaan is onderwerpe geskakel waar moontlik, sodat elke hoofpunt ook dien as 'n inhoudsopgawe of sitemap aan die onderwerp dekking op Wikipedia.

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P literature.svg Algemene verwysing   (sien al die bladsye)

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P culture.svgKultuur en die kunste   (sien al die bladsye)

Kultuur – set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that define a group of people, such as the people of a particular region. Culture includes the elements that characterize a particular peoples' way of life.

  • Die Kunste – vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. The arts encompasses visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts.
    • Gastronomie – the art and science of good eating[1], including the the study of food and culture.
      • Voedselvoorbereiding – act of preparing foodstuffs for eating. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavour and digestibility of food.
      • Kos en drank
        • Cuisines – a cuisine is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture.
        • Sjokolade – raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree.
        • Wyn – alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes.[2]
    • Letterkunde – the art of written works.
      • Fiksie – any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s).
      • Poësie – literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning.
      • Critical theory – examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.
    • Visual arts – art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature.
      • Architecture – The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.
      • Crafts – recreational activities and hobbies that involve making things with one's hands and skill.
      • Drawing – visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium.
      • Film – moving pictures.
      • Painting – practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface with a brush or other object.
      • Photography – art, science, and practice of creating pictures by recording radiation on a radiation-sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or electronic image sensors.
      • Sculpture – three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials - typically stone such as marble - or metal, glass, or wood.
    • Performing arts – those forms of art that use the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium.
      • Dance – art form of movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music,[3] used as a form of expression, social interaction, or presented in a spiritual or performance setting.
      • Film – moving pictures, the art form that records performances visually.
      • Theatre – collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place.
      • Music – art form the medium of which is sound and silence.
        • Opera – art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (called a libretto) and musical score.[4]
        • Musical instruments – devices created or adapted for the purpose of making musical sounds.
          • Guitars – the guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with either nylon or steel strings.
  • Celebration
    • Festivals – entertainment events centering on and celebrating a unique aspect of a community, usually staged by that community.
  • Entertainment – any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie.
    • Fiction – any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s).
      • James Bond – fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming. Since then, the character has grown to icon status, featured in many novels, movies, video games and other media.
      • Middle-earth – fantasy setting by writer J.R.R. Tolkien, home to hobbits, orcs, and many other mystical races and creatures.
      • Science fiction – a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible (or at least nonsupernatural) content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities. Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas".[5]
    • Games – structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment, involving goals, rules, challenge, and interaction.
      • Board games
        • Chess – two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: One king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.
      • Card games
        • Poker – family of card games that share betting rules and usually (but not always) hand rankings.
      • Video games
    • Sports – organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful activity requiring commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means. Generally speaking, a sport is a game based in physical athleticism.
      • Basketball – team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules.
      • Canoeing and kayaking – two closely related forms of watercraft paddling, involving manually propelling and navigating specialized boats called canoes and kayaks using a blade that is joined to a shaft, known as a paddle, in the water.
      • Cricket – bat-and-ball team sport, the most most popular form played on an oval-shaped outdoor arena known as a cricket field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard (20.12 m) long pitch that is the focus of the game.
      • Martial arts – extensive systems of codified practices and traditions of combat, practiced for a variety of reasons, including self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, as well as mental and spiritual development.
      • Motorcycling – riding a motorcycle. A variety of subcultures and lifestyles have been built up around motorcycling and motorcycle racing.
      • Running – moving rapidly on foot, during which both feet are off the ground at regular intervals.
      • Tennis – sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles), using specialized racquets to strike a felt-covered hollow rubber ball over a net into the opponent's court.
  • Area studies – comprehensive interdisciplinary research and academic study of the people and communities of particular regions. Disciplines applied include history, political science, sociology, cultural studies, languages, geography, literature, and related disciplines.
    • Classical studies – branch of the Humanities comprising the languages, literature, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and all other cultural elements of the ancient Mediterranean world (Bronze Age ca. BC 3000 – Late Antiquity ca. AD 300–600); especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
    • Sinology – study of China and things related to China, such as its classical language and literature.
References
  1. Merriam-Webster "Gastronomy - Definition"
  2. "wine". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. URL besoek op 25 June 2008. 
  3. Britannica.com
  4. Some definitions of opera: "dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, branch of art concerned with this" (Concise Oxford English Dictionary); "any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists" (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); "musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century" (Pears Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
  5. Marg Gilks, Paula Fleming, and Moira Allen (2003). “Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas”. WritingWorld.com.

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P countries.png Geografie en plekke   (sien al die bladsye)

Geografie

Kontinente en belangrike geopolitieke streke (nie-kontinente is kursief)
Afrika • Antarktika • AsiëEuropaNoord-AmerikaOseanië (sluit in Australië) • Suid-Amerika
Politieke verdeeldheid van die wêreld, gerangskik volgens die vasteland of belangrike geopolitieke streek
Afrika
Wes-Afrika LocationWesternAfrica.png
BeninBurkina FasoKape VerdeIvoorkusGambiëGhanaGuineeGuinee-BissauLiberiëMaliMauritaniëNigerNigeriëSenegalSierra LeoneTogo
Noord-Afrika LocationNorthernAfrica.png
AlgeriëEgipteLibiëMauritaniëMarokkoSoedanSuid-SoedanTunisiëWes-Sahara
Sentraal-Afrika LocationCentralMiddleAfrica.png
AngolaBurundiKameroenSentraal-Afrikaanse RepubliekTsjadDie Demokratiese Republiek van die KongoEkwatoriaal-GuineeGaboenRepubliek van die KongoRwandaSão Tomé en Príncipe
Oos-Afrika LocationEasternAfrica.png
BurundiComoreDjiboetiEritreaEthiopiëKeniaMadagaskarMalawiMauritiusMosambiekRwandaSeychelleSomaliëTanzaniëUgandaZambiëZimbabwe
Suider-Afrika LocationSouthernAfrica.png
BotswanaLesothoNamibiaSuid-AfrikaSwaziland
Afhanklikes
Mayotte (Frankryk)St. Helena (VK)PuntlandSomalilandArabiese Demokratiese Republiek Sahara
Antarktika
Geen
Asië
Sentraal-Asië
Kasakstan[1]KirgisistanTadjikistanTurkmenistanOesbekistan
Oos-Asië
Sjina[2]
Tibet
Hong Kong[3]Macau[4]
JapanNoord-KoreaSuid-KoreaMongoliëTaiwan[5]
Noord-Asië
Rusland[6]
Suidoos-Asië[7]
BroeneiBirma (Myanmar)Kambodja[8]Oos-Timor (Timor-Leste)[9]Indonesië[10]LaosMaleisiëFilippyneSingapoerThailandViëtnam
Suid-Asië
AfghanistanBangladesjBhoetanIndië[11]IranMalediveNepalPakistanSri Lanka
Wes-Asië
Armenië[12]Aserbeidjan[13]BahreinCiprus[14] (insluitend omstrede Noord-Ciprus) • Georgië[15]IrakIsraelJordaniëKoeweitLibanonOmanPalestina [16]KatarSaoedi-ArabiëSiriëTurkye[17]Verenigde Arabiese EmirateJemen
Kaukasus ('n streek wat beskou word in beide Asië en Europa, of tussen hulle)
Noord-Kaukasus
Dele van Rusland (Tsjetsjnië, Ingoesjetië, Dagestan, Adigea, Kabardino-Balkarië, Karatsjai-Tsjerkessië, Noord-Ossetië, Krasnodar-krai, Stawropol-krai)
Suid-Kaukasus
Georgië (insluitend omstrede Abchasië, Suid-Ossetië) • ArmeniëAserbeidjan (insluitend omstrede Nagornyy-Karabakh Republiek)
Europa Europe location.png
Akrotiri en DhekeliëÅlandAlbaniëAndorraArmeniëOostenrykAserbeidjanBelarus (Wit-Rusland)BelgiëBosnië en HerzegowinaBulgaryeKroasiëSiprusTsjeggiese RepubliekDenemarkeEstlandFaroëreilandeFinlandFrankrykGeorgiëDuitslandGibraltarGriekelandGuernseyHongaryeYslandIerlandMan (eiland)ItaliëJerseyKasakstanKosowoLetlandLiechtensteinLitaueLuxemburgMasedoniëMaltaMoldawië (including disputed Transnistrië) • MonacoMontenegroNederlandNoorweëPolePortugalRoemeniëRuslandSan MarinoSerwiëSlowakyeSloweniëSpanjeSvalbardSwedeSwitserlandTurkyeOekraïne
Verenigde Koninkryk
EngelandNoord-IerlandSkotlandWallis
Vatikaan-Stad
Europese Unie
Noord-Amerika
Kanada LocationCanadaAmerica.png
Provinsies van Kanada: Brits-ColumbiëQuebecSaskatchewan
GroenlandSaint-Pierre en Miquelon
Verenigde State Location USA in America.PNG
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • Kalifornië • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Montana • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • Nieu-Mexiko • New York • Noord-Carolina • Noord-Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsilvanië • Rhode Island • Suid-Carolina • Suid-Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • Wes-Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Distrik van Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
Mexiko Location mexico in america.jpg
Sentraal-Amerika
BelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanama
Karibies
AnguillaAntigua en BarbudaArubaBahamasBarbadosBermudaBritse Maagde-EilandeCayman-EilandeKubaDominicaDominikaanse RepubliekGrenadaGuadeloupeHaïtiJamaikaMartiniqueMontserratNavassa-EilandNederlandse AntillePuerto RicoSaint-BarthélemySaint Kitts en NevisSt LuciaSint MaartenSaint Vincent en die GrenadineTrinidad en TobagoTurks en Caicos-EilandeAmerikaanse Maagde-eilande
Oseanië (sluit in die kontinent van Australië)
Australasië[18]
Australië Location Australia.svg
Afhanklike/Gebiede van Australië
Kerseiland[7]KokoseilandeNorfolk-Eiland
Nieu Seeland[19]
Melanesië[20]
FidjiIndonesië (Slegs Oseanië deel)[21]Nieu-Kaledonië (Frankryk) • Papoea-Nieu Guinee[22]SolomoneilandeVanuatu
Mikronesië
Gefedereerde State van MikronesiëGuam (VSA) • KiribatiMarshall-EilandeNauruNoordelike Mariana-eilande (VSA) • PalauWake-eiland (VSA) •
Polinesië[23]
Amerikaans-Samoa (VSA) • Chatham-Eilande (NS) • Cook-Eilande (NS) • Paas-Eilande (Chili) • Frans-Polinesië (Frankryk) • Hawaii (VSA) • Lojaliteitseilande (Frankryk) • Niue (NS) • Pitcairn-Eilande (VK) • AdamstownSamoaTokelau (NS) • TongaTuvaluWallis en Futuna (Frankryk)
Suid-Amerika Location of South America.svg
ArgentiniëBoliviaBrasiliëChiliColombiaEcuadorFalkland-eilandeGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuela
Suid-Atlanties
Ascension-eilandSint HelenaTristan da Cunha
Notas
  1. Kasakstan word soms beskou as 'n transkontinentale land in Sentraal-Asië en Oos-Europa; bevolking en oppervlakte syfers is net vir Asiatiese gedeelte.
  2. Die staat is algemeen bekend as bloot "Sjina", wat deur die gelyknamige entiteit en beskawing (Sjina) gesubsumeer is.
  3. Hong Kong is 'n Spesiale Administratiewe Streek (SAS) van die VRS.
  4. Macau is 'n Spesiale Administratiewe Streek (SAS) van die VRS.
  5. Onder die de facto beheer van die Republiek van Sjina (RVS) regering, algemeen bekend as Taiwan. Geëis in die geheel deur die VRS; sien politieke status van Taiwan.
  6. Rusland is 'n transkontinentale land; bevolking en oppervlakte syfers is net vir Asiatiese gedeelte.
  7. 7,0 7,1 Kerseiland en Kokoseilande (Australiese eksterne gebiede in die Indiese Oseaan suidwes van Indonesië) is uitgesluit.
  8. Algemene Bevolkingsensus van Kambodja 2008 - Voorlopige totale van die bevolking, Nasionale Instituut vir Statistiek, die Ministerie van Beplanning, vrygestel 3de September, 2008
  9. Oos-Timor word dikwels beskou as 'n transkontinentale land in Suidoostelike Asië enOseanië.
  10. Indonesië word dikwels beskou as 'n transkontinentale land in Suidoostelike Asië en Oseanië
  11. Sluit Jammu en Kashmir in, 'n betwiste gebied tussen Indië, Pakistan, en die VRS.
  12. Armenië word soms beskou as 'n Transkontinentale land: fisiografies in Wes-Asië, dit het historiese en sosio-politieke bande met Europa.
  13. Aserbeidjan word dikwels beskou as 'n transkontinentale land in Wes-Asië en Oos-Europa; bevolking en oppervlakte syfers is net vir Asiatiese gedeelte. Syfers sluit Nachitsjewan in, 'n outonome eksklave van Aserbeidjan begrens deur Armenië, Iran, en Turkye.
  14. Die eiland Ciprus word soms beskou as 'n transkontinentale grondgebied: in die Oos-bekken van die Middellandse See suid van Turkye, dit het 'n historiese en sosio-politieke verbintenisse met Europa. Die Verenigde Nasies beskou Ciprus in Wes-Asië, terwyl die CIA beskou dat dit in Midde-Ooste is.
  15. Georgië word dikwels beskou as 'n transkontinentale land in Wes-Asië en Oos-Europa; bevolking en oppervlakte syfers is slegs vir die Asiatiese gedeelte.
  16. Gasa en Wesoewer, gesamentlik verwys as die "Besette Palestynse Grondgebied" deur die VN, is gebiede gedeeltelik beset word deur Israel, maar onder diede factoadministrasie van die Palestynse Nasionale Owerheid.
  17. Turkyeis oor die algemeen beskou as 'n transkontinentale land in Wes-Asië en Suid-Europa; bevolking en oppervlakte syfers is net vir Asiatiese gedeelte, met die hele Istanbul uitgesluit.
  18. Die gebruik en omvang van hierdie term wissel. Die VN-benaming vir hierdie substreek is "Australië en Nieu-Seeland."
  19. Nieu-Seeland word dikwels beskou as deel van Polinesië eerder as Australië.
  20. Dele van Indonesië is uitgesluit, eiland gebiede in Suidoos-Asië (VN streek) wat dikwels in hierdie streek gereken word.
  21. Indonesia is oor die algemeen beskou as 'n gebied van Suidoostelike-Asië (VN-streek); geheel of gedeeltelik, dit is dikwels ook ingesluit in Australië of Melanesia. Syfers sluit in Indonesies gedeelte van Nieu-Guinee ( Irian Jaya) en Maluku Eilande.
  22. Papoea-Nieu Guinee word dikwels beskou as deel van Australië sowel as Melanesië.
  23. DieAmerikaanse staat van Hawaii word uitgesluit, wat ver van die Noord-Amerikaanse landmassa in die Stille Oseaan, en Paas-eiland, 'n gebied van Chili in Suid-Amerika.

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P medicine.svg Gesondheid en fiksheid   (sien al die bladsye)

See also: Biology (below)

Health – level of functional and (or) metabolic efficiency of a person in mind, body and spirit; being free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”).[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."[2][3]

  • Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and mental health including the prevention of depression. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.[4][5]
  • Health science
    • Medicine – science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
      • Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the mouth, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures (teeth) and their impact on the human body.[6]
    • Life extension – The study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
    • Nutrition – provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated through good nutrition.
References
  1. Merriam-Webster. Dictionnary - "Health", accessed 21 April 2011.
  2. World Health Organization. 1946. WHO definition of Health, Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
  3. World Health Organization. 2006. Constitution of the World Health Organization - Basic Documents, Forty-fifth edition, Supplement, October 2006.
  4. doi:10.1056/NEJM200007063430103
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  5. Hu., F., Manson, J., Stampfer, M., Graham, C., et al. (2001). Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(11), 790–797. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  6. Dentistry Definitions, hosted on the American Dental Association website. Page accessed 30 May 2010. This definition was adopted the association's House of Delegates in 1997.

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Klepsydra-pt.svg Geskiedenis en gebeurtenisse   (sien al die bladsye)

History – record of past events and the way things were. It is also a field, responsible for the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about the past.

  • History, by period
    • Classical antiquity – long period of cultural history in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the Greco-Roman world.
      • Ancient Greece – period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages (ca. 1100 BC) to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece. It was the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization.
      • Ancient Rome – civilization that started on the Italian Peninsula and lasted from as early as the 10th century BC to the 5th century AD. Over centuries it shifted from a monarchy to a republic to an empire which dominated South-Western Europe, South-Eastern Europe/Balkans and the Mediterranean region.
    • Middle Ages (Medieval history)– historical period following the Iron Age, fully underway by the 5th century and lasting to the 15th century and preceding the early Modern Era. It is the middle period in a three-period division of history: Classic, Medieval, and Modern.
    • Renaissance – cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. It encompassed a flowering of literature, science, art, religion, and politics, and gradual but widespread educational reform.
  • History, by region
    • United States history
    • Historical states
      • Ancient Egypt – an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, along the lower reaches of the Nile River starting about 3150 BC, in what is now the modern country of Egypt.[1]
      • Ancient Greece – period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages (ca. 1100 BC) to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece. It was the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization.
      • Ancient Rome – civilization that started on the Italian Peninsula and lasted from as early as the 10th century BC to the 5th century AD. Over centuries it shifted from a monarchy to a republic to an empire which dominated South-Western Europe, South-Eastern Europe/Balkans and the Mediterranean region.
      • Byzantine Empire – the Eastern Roman Empire that existed throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania by its inhabitants and neighbors, the empire was centered on the capital of Constantinople and was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State.[2] Byzantium, however, was distinct from ancient Rome, in that it was Christian and predominantly Greek-speaking, being influenced by Greek, as opposed to Latin, culture.[3]
      • Ottoman Empire – historical Muslim empire, also known by its contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey. At its zenith in the second half of the 16th century it controlled Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa.


  1. Chronology”. Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. URL besoek op 25 March 2008.
  2. Halsall, Paul (1995). “Byzantium”. Fordham University. URL besoek op 21 June 2011.
  3. Millar 2006; James 2010, p. 5: "But from the start, there were two major differences between the Roman and Byzantine empires: Byzantium was for much of its life a Greek-speaking empire oriented towards Greek, not Latin culture; and it was a Christian empire."
  4. Dunnigan, James; Albert Nofi. Dirty Little Secrets of World War II: Military Information No One Told You About the Greatest, Most Terrible War in History, William Morrow & Company, 1994. ISBN 0-688-12235-3
  5. DoD 1998
  6. Lawrence 2009, p. 20
  7. James Olson and Randy Roberts, Where the Domino Fell: America and Vietnam, 1945–1990, p. 67 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991).
  8. Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–346; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
  9. Vietnam War”. Encyclopædia Britannica. URL besoek op 5 March 2008.

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P mathematics.svg Wiskunde en logika   (sien al die bladsye)

Formal sciences – Branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems. Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules.

  • Mathematics – The study of quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns,[1][2] and formulate new conjectures.
    • Arithmetic – The study of quantity, especially as the result of combining numbers.
    • Algebra – The study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them.
    • Calculus – Calculus is the study of change,[3] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.
    • Combinatorics – The study of finite or countable discrete structures.
    • Discrete mathematics – The study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.
    • Geometry – The study of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
    • Trigonometry – The study of triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides. Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves.
  • Logic – The study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science.
  • Mathematical sciences – academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper.
    • Statistics – The study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data.[4][5]
      • Probability – way of expressing knowledge or belief that an event will occur or has occurred. The concept has an exact mathematical meaning in probability theory, which is used extensively in such areas of study as mathematics, statistics, finance, gambling, science, artificial intelligence/machine learning and philosophy to draw conclusions about the likelihood of potential events and the underlying mechanics of complex systems.
      • Regression analysis – Any technique for learning about the relationship between one or more dependent variables Y and one or more independent variables X.
References
  1. Steen, L.A. (April 29, 1988). The Science of Patterns Science, 240: 611–616. and summarized at Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, ascd.org
  2. Devlin, Keith, Mathematics: The Science of Patterns: The Search for Order in Life, Mind and the Universe (Scientific American Paperback Library) 1996, ISBN 978-0-7167-5047-5
  3. Latorre, Donald R.; Kenelly, John W.; Reed, Iris B.; Biggers, Sherry (2007), Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change, Cengage Learning, p. 2, ISBN 0-618-78981-2, http://books.google.com/books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C , Chapter 1, p 2
  4. Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9
  5. The Free Online Dictionary

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P physics.svg Natuurwetenskappe en Fisiese wetenskappe   (sien al die bladsye)

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P vip.svg Mense en individualiteit   (sien al die bladsye)

People

Types of people
Children
Self
Aspects of people
their bodies (biology)
their minds (psychology)
their associations (relationships)

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Socrates blue version2.png Filosofie en denkwyse   (sien al die bladsye)

Philosophy – The study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

  • Branches of philosophy
    • Aesthetics – The study of the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
    • Epistemology – The study of the nature and scope of knowledge and belief.
    • Ethics – The study of the right, the good, and the valuable. Includes study of applied ethics.
    • Logic – The study of good reasoning, by examining the validity of arguments and documenting their fallacies.
    • Metaphysics – The study of the state of being and the nature of reality.
      • Ontology – The study of the nature of being, existence or reality.
    • Social philosophy – The study of questions about social behavior.
    • Political philosophy – The study of the ideas that become political values.

Thought

References

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P religion.png Religie en geloofsisteem   (sien al die bladsye)

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P social sciences.png Samelewing en sosiale wetenskappe   (sien al die bladsye)

Science – systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

Society

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P train.svg Tegnologie en toegepaste wetenskappe   (sien al die bladsye)

Main outlines: Outline of science and

Applied science

Technology

  • Forensics – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action.
  • Firefighting – act of extinguishing fires. A firefighter fights fires to prevent destruction of life, property and the environment. Firefighting is a professional technical skill that requires years of training.
  • Forestry – art and science of tree resources, including plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forests to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services.
  • Hydrology – The study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  • Nanotechology – The study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometre in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices possessing at least one dimension within that size.
  • Sustainability – capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions.
  • Business management – act of getting people together to accomplish profit-oriented goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. It comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling a business or effort for the purpose of earning a profit.
    • Actuarial science – discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries.
    • Marketing – process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and generate the strategy of sales techniques and business communication to build strong customer relationships.
    • Manufacturing – use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.
  • Domestic
    • Education – any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another.
    • Family and consumer science – deals with the relationship between individuals or families and the social environment in which they live. It is the study of life skills and draws upon consumer science, nutrition, food preparation, parenting, family economics and other related subjects.
  • Energy
  • Engineering
  • Health
    • Biotechnology
    • Ergonomics – The study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities.
  • Industry
  • Information technology
  • Military science
  • Transport
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