Rök-steen

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Die Rök-steen (Sweeds: Rökstenen; Rundata: Ög 136) is een van die beroemste runestene en bevat die langste aangetekende runegravering. Dit is naby die kerk in Rök, Östergötland (Swede) geleë en word as die eerste stuk geskrewe Sweedse literatuur geag en merk dit gevolglik die begin van die geskiedenis van Sweedse letterkunde.[1][2]

Aangaande die steen[wysig]

Die steen is in die 19de eeu ontdek waar dit in die muur van die kerk ingebou is. Dit is 'n paar dekades later uit die muur verwyder. Dit is waarskynlik tydens die 800's gegraveer te oordeel aan die runestyl en die toestand van die taal. Die steen word aan vyf sye deur runes oortrek — dit is al die sye buiten die basis, wat onder die grond sou bly. 'n Paar gedeeltes van die inskripsie is beskadig, maar die meerderheid van die steen bly leesbaar.

Die naam "Rök-steen" is toutologies, aangesen die steen na die nedersetting "Rök" vernoem is, terwyl die nedersetting self na die steen "Rauk" of "Rök" (wat "steen" in Oud-Noors beteken) vernoem is.

Die steen is uniek in die sin dat dit 'n gedeelte van die verlore Noorse mitologie bevat. Dit maak ook 'n geskiedkundige verwysing na die Ostrogotiese koning Feodor die Grote.

Die gravering is op twee maniere gedeeltelik geënkripteer: deur verplasing en deur die gebruik van spesiale koderunes. Die inskripsie is moontlik opsetlik moeilik leesbaar: miskien as deel van die magiese ritueel, of dalk bloot net om die graveerder se runevaardighede af te wys.

Inskripsie[wysig]

Die volgende is 'n transliterasie van die runes:

aft uamuþ stonta runaR þaR n uarin faþi faþiR aft faikion sunu sakum| |mukmini þat huariaR ualraubaR uaRin tuaR þaR suaþ tualf sinum uaRin| |numnaR t ualraubu baþaR somon o umisum| |monum ' þat sakum onart huaR fur niu altum on urþi fiaru miR hraiþkutum auk tu miR on ub sakaR raiþ| |þiaurikR hin þurmuþi stiliR flutna strontu hraiþmaraR sitiR nu karuR o kuta sinum skialti ub fatlaþR skati marika þat sakum tualfta huar histR si kunaR itu| |uituoki on kunukaR tuaiR tikiR suaþ o likia ' þat sakum þritaunta huariR tuaiR tikiR kunukaR satin t siulunti fiakura uintur at fiakurum nabnum burnR fiakurum bruþrum ' ualkaR fim ra=þulfs| |suniR hraiþulfaR fim rukulfs| |suniR hoislaR fim haruþs suniR kunmuntaR fim (b)irnaR suniR * nuk m--- (m)-- alu --(k)(i) ainhuaR -þ... ...þ ... ftiR fra sagwm| |mogmeni (þ)ad hOaR igOldga OaRi gOldin d gOonaR hOsli sakum| |mukmini uaim si burin| |niþR troki uilin is þat knuo knati| |iatun uilin is þat (n)(i)(t) akum| |mukmini þur sibi uiauari ul niruþR

Die volgende is 'n transkripsie van die runes in die vroeë 9de eeuse Oud-Oosnoors (Sweedse en Deense) dialek van Oud-Noors:

Die vooraansig van die steen. Die begin van die inskripsie word gelees wanneer die leser sy kop na links draai.
Aft Wǣmōð/Wāmōð stąnda rūnaʀ þāʀ. Æn Warinn fāði, faðiʀ, aft fæigjąn sūnu. Sagum mōgminni/ungmænni þat, hwærjaʀ walraufaʀ wāʀin twāʀ þāʀ, swāð twalf sinnum wāʀin numnaʀ at walraufu, bāðaʀ sąmąn ą̄ ȳmissum mąnnum. Þat sagum ąnnart, hwaʀ fur nīu aldum ą̄n urði/yrði fjaru meðr Hræiðgutum, auk dō meðr hann umb sakaʀ. Rēð Þjoðrikʀ hinn þurmōði, stilliʀ flutna, strąndu Hræiðmaraʀ. Sitiʀ nū garwʀ ą̄ guta sīnum, skjaldi umb fatlaðʀ, skati Mǣringa. Þat sagum twalfta, hwar hæstʀ sē Gunnaʀ etu wēttwąngi ą̄, kunungaʀ twæiʀ tigiʀ swāð ą̄ liggja. Þat sagum þrēttaunda, hwariʀ twæiʀ tigiʀ kunungaʀ sātin at Sjolundi fjagura wintur at fjagurum nafnum, burniʀ fjagurum brø̄ðrum. Walkaʀ fimm, Rāðulfs syniʀ, Hræiðulfaʀ fimm, Rugulfs syniʀ, Hāislaʀ fimm, Hāruðs syniʀ, Gunnmundaʀ/Kynmundaʀ fimm, Bjarnaʀ syniʀ. Nū 'k m[inni] m[eðr] allu [sa]gi. Æinhwaʀʀ ... [swā]ð ... æftiʀ frā. Sagum mōgminni/ungmænni þat, hwaʀ Inguldinga wāʀi guldinn at kwą̄naʀ hūsli. Sagum mōgminni/ungmænni, hwæim sē burinn niðʀ dræ̨ngi. Wilinn es þat. Knūą/knyią knātti jatun. Wilinn es þat ... Sagum mōgminni/ungmænni: Þōrr. Sibbi wīawæri ōl nīrø̄ðʀ.

Die volgende is 'n transkripsie van die runes in die klassieke 13de eeuse Oud-Wesnoors (Noorse en Yslandse) dialek van Oud-Noors:

Eptir Vémóð/Vámóð standa rúnar þær. En Varinn fáði, faðir, eptir feigjan son. Sǫgum múgminni/ungmenni þat, hverjar valraufar væri tvær þær, svát tolf sinnum væri numnar at valraufu, báðar saman á ýmissum mǫnnum. Þat sǫgum annat, hverr fyrir níu ǫldum án yrði fjǫr með Hreiðgotum, auk dó meðr hann umb sakar. Réð Þjóðríkr hinn þormóði, stillir flotna, strǫndu Hreiðmarar. Sitr nú gǫrr á gota sínum, skildi umb fatlaðr, skati Mæringa. Þat sǫgum tolfta, hvar hestr sé Gunnar etu véttvangi á, konungar tveir tigir svát á liggja. Þat sǫgum þrettánda, hverir tveir tigir konungar sæti at Sjólundi fjóra vetr at fjórum nǫfnum, bornir fjórum brœðrum. Valkar fimm, Ráðulfs synir, Hreiðulfar fimm, Rugulfs synir, Háislar fimm, Hǫrðs synir, Gunnmundar/Kynmundar fimm, Bjarnar synir. Nú'k m[inni] m[eð] ǫllu [se]gi. Einhverr ... [svá]t ... eptir frá. Sǫgum múgminni/ungmenni þat, hvar Ingoldinga væri goldinn at kvánar húsli. Sǫgum múgminni/ungmenni, hveim sé borinn niðr drengi. Vilinn er þat. Knúa/knýja knátti jǫtun. Vilinn er þat ... Sǫgum múgminni/ungmenni: Þórr. Sibbi véaveri ól nírœðr.

Vetaling[wysig]

Die volgende is een vertaalde weergawe van die teks: die meeste navorsers stem oor die wyse van die vertaling saam, maar die interpretering daarvan bly 'n debatspunt. Die eerste gedeelte is in ljóðaháttr-metrum geskryf.

Die steen word onderdaks beskut en staan naby die kerk waarin dit ontdek is.
In memory of Vémóðr/Vámóðr stand these runes.
And Varinn coloured them, the father,
in memory of his dead son.
I say the folktale / to the young men, which the two war-booties were, which twelve times were taken as war-booty, both together from various men.
I say this second, who nine generations ago lost his life with the Hreidgoths; and died with them for his guilt.
Þjóðríkr the bold,
chief of sea-warriors,
ruled over the shores of the Hreiðsea.
Now he sits armed
on his Goth(ic horse),
his shield strapped,
the prince of the Mærings.
I say this the twelfth, where the horse of Gunnr sees fodder on the battlefield, where twenty kings lie.
This I say as thirteenth, which twenty kings sat on Sjólund for four winters, of four names, born of four brothers: five Valkis, sons of Hráðulfr, five Hreiðulfrs, sons of Rugulfr, five Háisl, sons of Hôrðr, five Gunnmundrs/Kynmundrs, sons of Bjôrn.
Now I say the tales in full. Someone ...
I say the folktale / to the young men, which of the line of Ingold was repaid by a wife's sacrifice.
I say the folktale / to the young men, to whom is born a relative, to a valiant man. It is Vélinn. He could crush a giant. It is Vélinn ... [Nit]
I say the folktale / to the young men: Þórr. Sibbi of Vé, nonagenarian, begot (a son).

Bronne[wysig]

  • Bugge, Sophus: Der Runenstein von Rök in Östergötland, Schweden, Stockholm 1910
  • von Friesen, Otto: Rökstenen, Uppsala 1920
  • Grönvik, Ottar: Runeinnskriften på Rökstenen in Maal og Minde 1983, Oslo 1983
  • Gustavson, Helmer: Rökstenen (produced by Riksantikvarieämbetet), Uddevalla 2000, ISBN 91-7192-822-7
  • Jansson, Sven B F: Runinskrifter i Sverige, Stockholm 1963, 3rd edition in 1984
  • Rydberg, Viktor: Om Hjältesagan å Rökstenen, Stockholm, 1892; translated as "The Heroic Saga on the Rökstone" by William P. Reaves, The Runestone Journal 1, Asatru Folk Assembly, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9797188-0-09.
  • Schück, Henrik: Bidrag till tolkningen af Rökstenen in Uppsala Universitets årsskrift, Uppsala 1908
  • Ståhle, Carl Ivar and Tigerstedt, E N: Sveriges litteratur. Del 1. Medeltidens och reformationstidens litteratur, Stockholm 1968
  • Wessén, Elias: Runstenen vid Röks kyrka, Stockholm 1958

Inlynverwysings[wysig]

  1. Gustafson, Alrik, Svenska litteraturens historia, 2 volums (Stockholm, 1963). Eerste uitgawe as A History of Swedish Literature (American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1961). Hoofstuk 1.
  2. Forntid och medeltid, Lönnroth, in Lönnroth, Göransson, Delblanc, Den svenska litteraturen, vol 1.

Sien ook[wysig]

Eksterne skakels[wysig]

Commons
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Rökstenen (bladsy)