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Florence-katedraal
Florence Duomo from Michelangelo hill.jpg

Florence-katedraal, formeel bekend as die Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (Italiaanse fonetiese uitspraak: katteˈdraːle di ˈsanta maˈriːa del ˈfjoːre; in Afrikaans: "Katedraal van die heilige Maria van die Blom"), is die katedraal van Florence, Italië (Italiaans: Duomo di Firenze). Daar is in 1296 'n aanvang geneem met die bouwerk daaraan. Dit is gebou in die Gotiese argitek-styl ingevolge 'n ontwerp deur Arnolfo di Cambio. Die struktuur daarvan was in 1436 voltooi, met die koepel wat deur Brunelleschi ontwerp is.[1] Die buitekant van die basiliek is oorlê met polichroom marmerpanele wat in verskeie skakerings van groen en pienk is. Die vooraansig is ontwerp in die uitgebreide styl van die 19de eeuse Gotiese-hernuwing, en is deur Emilio De Fabris.

Die gehele katedraal-struktuur wat in die Piazza del Duomo geleë is, sluit die Florence-doopvont en Giotto se Campanile (kloktoring) in. Hierdie drie geboue is deel van die Wêrelderfenisgebied wat die historiese sentrum van Florence dek en 'n groot toeristeaantreklikheid in Toskane is. Die basiliek is een van Italië se grootste kerke, en die koepel was tot die ontwikkeling van nuwe strukturele materiale in die moderne era die grootste koepel ter wêreld gewees. Dit bly egter een van die grootste bestaande baksteenkoepels wat ooit gebou is. Die katedraal is die moederkerk van die Rooms Katolieke Aartsbisdom van Florence, waarvan die aartsbiskop Giuseppe Betori is.

Geskiedenis[wysig | wysig bron]

Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore

Die Santa Maria del Fiore was gebou op die plek van Florence se tweede katedraal wat aan die heilige Reparata gewy is[2]; die eerste was die Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze waarvan die eerste gebou in 393 deur Sint Ambrosia van Milaan as 'n kerk ingewy is.[3] Die antieke struktuur wat in die vroeë 5de eeu opgerig is, was volgens die 14de eeuse Nuova Cronica van Giovanni Villani as gevolg van verskeie kere se herstelwerk asook ouderdom in 'n vervalle toestand gewees, [4] en was nie meer groot genoeg gewees nie om die stad se groeiende bevolking te akkommodeer nie.[4] Ander groot Toskaanse stede het gedurende die laat-middeleeuse tydperk ambisieuse rekonstruksies van hul katedrale onderneem, soos byvoorbeeld Pisa en vernaam Sienna waar die enorme voorgestelde uitbreidings nooit voltooi is nie.

Giotto se kloktoring (campanile)

Die nuwe kerk was ontwerp gewees deur Arnolfo di Cambio en in 1294 deur die stadsraad goedgekeur.[5] Di Cambio was ook die argitek gewees van die kerk van Santa Croce en die Palazzo Vecchio.[6][7] Hy het drie wye nawels ontwerp wat eindig onder die oktagonale koepel, met die middelste naaf wat die area van Santa Reparata dek. Die eerste steen was op 9 September 1296 deur Kardinaal Valeriana, die eerste pouslike gesant ooit wat na Florence gestuur is, gelê. Die bou van hierdie ontsaglike groot projek sou 140 jaar duur; Arnolfo se plan vir die oostelike deel (alhoewel dit in konsep behou is) was wat die grootte daarvan betref wesentlik uitgebrei gewees.

Die Duomo in 'n voorstelling daarvan in voltooide toestand, in 'n fresko deur Andrea di Bonaiuto wat in die 1360's geskilder is, voor die aanvang van die bouwerk aan die koepel

Nadat Arnolfo in 1302 dood is het werk op die katedraal vir byna vyftig jaar verstadig. Toe die relieke van die heilige Zenobius in 1330 in Santa Reparata ontdek is het die projek egter nuwe dryfkrag verkry. In 1331 het die Arte della Lana, die gilde van wolhandelaars, as beskermhere vir die konstruksie van die katedraal oorgeneem en in 1334 vir Giotto aangestel om toesig oor die werk te hou. Hy was hierin bygestaan gewees deur Andrea Pisano, en het voortgegaan met di Cambio se ontwerp. Sy grootste prestasie was die bou van die campanile (kloktoring). Toe Giotto op 8 Januarie 1337 gesterf het, het Andrea Pisano met die bouwerk voortgegaan totdat werk in 1348 as gevolg van die Swart Dood gestaak is.

In 1349 is werk aan die katedraal onder 'n reeks argitekte hervat, beginnende met Francesco Talenti, wat die campanile (kloktoring) voltooi het en die totale projek uitgebrei het om die apsis en die sy-kapelle in te sluit. In 1359 word Talenti opgevolg deur Giovanni di Lapo Ghini (1360–1369) wat die middelste naaf in vier dele verdeel het. Ander argitekte wat betrokke was, was Alberto Arnoldi, Giovanni d'Ambrogio, Neri di Fioravante en Andrea Orcagna. Teen 1375 was die ou kerk (Santa Reparata) gesloop. Die naaf was teen 1380 voltooi, en teen 1418 het slegs die koepel slegs onvoltooid gebly.

Optog buite die katedraal in die 18de eeu

Op 18 Augustus 1418 kondig die Arte della Lana 'n argitek-ontwerpkompetisie aan vir die oprig van Neri se koepel. Die twee belangrikste mededingers was twee meester goudsmede, Lorenzo Ghiberti en Filippo Brunelleschi. Laasgenoemde is deur Cosimo de Medici gesteun. Ghiberti was die wenner van 'n kompetisie vir 'n stel bronsdeure vir die doopvont in 1401 gewees, en die twee sou lewenslank mededingers bly. Brunelleschi het uiteindelik geseëvier en die opdrag verkry.[8]

Ghiberti het as mede-beoordelaar 'n salaris gelykstaande aan die van Brunelleschi verdien. Wanneer Brunelleschi siek geword het of ongesteld was, was die projek vir kort tye in die hande van Ghiberti gewees. Maar Ghiberti moes egter gou erken dat die gehele projek bo sy vuurmaakplek was. In 1423 was Brunelleschi weer in beheer en het hy die enigste verantwoordelikheid oorgeneem.[9]

Werk aan die koepel is in 1420 begin en in 1436 voltooi. Die katedraal was op 25 Maart 1436, (die eerste dag van die jaar volgens die Florentynse kalender), deur Pous Eugene IV ingewy. Dit was die eerste 'agthoekige' koepel in die geskiedenis gewees wat sonder 'n tydelike houtsteunraam gebou is. Dit was een van die mees indrukwekkende projekte van die Renaissance. Tydens die inwyding daarvan in 1436 is Guillaume Dufay se motet Nuper rosarum flores uitgevoer.

Die Duomo en Doopvont van die heilige Johannes soos gesien vanaf die Piazza del Duomo

Die versiering van die buitekant van die katedraal, wat in die 14de eeu begin is, is eers in 1887 voltooi, toe die polichroom marmerfasade ingevolge 'n ontwerp deur Emilio De Fabris voltooi is. Die kerk se vloer is in die 16de eeu in marmer teëls her-uitgevoer.

Die versiering van die buitekant van die katedraal, wat in die 14de eeu begin is, is eers in 1887 voltooi, toe die polichroom marmerfasade ingevolge 'n ontwerp deur Emilio De Fabris voltooi is. Die kerk se vloer is in die 16de eeu in marmerteëls her-uitgevoer.

Die buitemure is met afwisselende vertikale en horisontale bande van polichroom marmer van Carrara (wit), Prato (groen), Siena (rooi), en Lavenza uitgevoer. Hierdie marmer dele moes die reeds bestaande dele teen die mure van die vroeëre aangrensende doopvont, die Battistero di San Giovanni en Giotto se kloktoring, herhaal. Daar is twee sydeure: die Deure van die Canonici (suidekant) en die Deur van die Mandorla (noordekant) met beeldhouwerke deur Nanni di Banco, Donatello, en Jacopo della Quercia. Die ses syvensters, veral opvallend vir hul fyn versiering en ornamente, word by wyse van kolomme van mekaar geskei. Slegs die vier vensters naaste aan die arms van die naaf (in kerke wat kruisvormig is; transep) gee lig; die ander twee is bloot ornamenteel. Die vensters aan die boonste gedeelte van die kerk, koor en transep van die kerk is rond, 'n algemene kenmerk in Italiaans- Gotiese argitektuur.

Gedurende die lang geskiedenis daarvan, was die katedraal die setel van die Raad van Florence (1439)]] gewees; dit was ook die ligging vir die preke van Girolamo Savonarola gewees; en was verder meer getuie gewees tot die moord op Giuliano di Piero de' Medici op Sondag 26 April 1478 gewees (met Lorenzo Il Magnifico wat skrams die dood vrygespring het) tydens die Pazzi-sameswering.

Exterior[wysig | wysig bron]

Plan and structure[wysig | wysig bron]

Plan of the church with various extension phases

The cathedral of Florence is built as a basilica, having a wide central nave of four square bays, with an aisle on either side. The chancel and transepts are of identical polygonal plan, separated by two smaller polygonal chapels. The whole plan forms a Latin cross. The nave and aisles are separated by wide pointed Gothic arches resting on composite piers.

The dimensions of the building are enormous: building area Sjabloon:Convert, length Sjabloon:Convert, width Sjabloon:Convert, width at the crossing Sjabloon:Convert. The height of the arches in the aisles is Sjabloon:Convert. The height of the dome is Sjabloon:Convert.[10]

Planned Sculpture for the exterior[wysig | wysig bron]

The Overseers of the Office of Works of Florence Cathedral, consisting mostly of members of the influential woolen cloth guild, the Arte della Lana, had plans to commission a series of twelve large Old Testament sculptures for the buttresses of the cathedral.[11]Donatello, then in his early twenties, was commissioned to carve a statue of David in 1408, to top one of the buttresses of Florence Cathedral, though it was never placed there. Nanni di Banco was commissioned to carve a marble statue of Isaiah, at the same scale, in the same year. One of the statues was lifted into place in 1409, but was found to be too small to be easily visible from the ground and was taken down; both statues then languished in the workshop of the opera for several years.[12][13][14] In 1410 Donatello made the first of the statues, a figure of Joshua in terracotta. In 1409-1411 Donatello made a statue of Saint John the Evangelist which until 1588 was in a niche of the old cathedral façade. A figure of Hercules, also in terracotta, was commissioned from the Florentine sculptor Agostino di Duccio in 1463 and was made perhaps under Donatello's direction.[15] A statue of David by Michelangelo was completed 1501-1504 although it could not be placed on the Butteresss because of its six ton weight. In 2010 a fiberglass replica of "David" was placed for one day on the Florence cathedral.

Dome[wysig | wysig bron]

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, Sjabloon:Convert high, Sjabloon:Convert long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct.[16] It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

Sjabloon:External media

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini.[17] That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north.[18] Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

Dome seen from the Giotto's Campanile

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured [19]. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting Sjabloon:Convert above the floor and spanning Sjabloon:Convert, there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms.[20] Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

Interior of the dome

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support.[21] The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.[22]

The Duomo viewed from the heights of Piazzale Michelangelo

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams Sjabloon:Convert in diameter and no more than Sjabloon:Convert long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, Sjabloon:Convert deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center.[23] The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.[24]

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.[25][26][27][28]

Baptistery of St. John next to the cathedral

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only Sjabloon:Convert thick at the base and Sjabloon:Convert thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.[29]

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to Sjabloon:Convert. This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

Cupola of the Dome

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.[31]

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".[32]

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.[33]

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

In 2010 a Fiberglass replica of Michaelangelo's David statue was placed for one day on the Florence cathedral [seen from the north]. This was the original placement planned for the statue.

Façade[wysig | wysig bron]

Model of the original medieval façade in the museum of the cathedral
Modern façade built in the 19th century
Façade of the cathedral

The original façade, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and usually attributed to Giotto, was actually begun twenty years after Giotto's death.[verwysing benodig] A mid-15th-century pen-and-ink drawing of this so-called Giotto's façade is visible in the Codex Rustici, and in the drawing of Bernardino Poccetti in 1587, both on display in the Museum of the Opera del Duomo. This façade was the collective work of several artists, among them Andrea Orcagna and Taddeo Gaddi. This original façade was completed in only its lower portion and then left unfinished. It was dismantled in 1587–1588 by the Medici court architect Bernardo Buontalenti, ordered by Grand Duke Francesco I de' Medici, as it appeared totally outmoded in Renaissance times. Some of the original sculptures are on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo, behind the cathedral. Others are now in the Berlin Museum and in the Louvre.

The competition for a new façade turned into a huge corruption scandal.Sjabloon:Cn The wooden model for the façade of Buontalenti is on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo. A few new designs had been proposed in later years, but the models (of Giovanni Antonio Dosio, Giovanni de' Medici with Alessandro Pieroni and Giambologna) were not accepted. The façade was then left bare until the 19th century.

Main portal by Augusto Passaglia
Statue of Saint Reparata, to whom the previous cathedral was dedicated, in the main portal

In 1864, a competition held to design a new façade was won by Emilio De Fabris (1808–1883) in 1871. Work began in 1876 and was completed in 1887. This neo-gothic façade in white, green and red marble forms a harmonious entity with the cathedral, Giotto's bell tower and the Baptistery, but some think it is excessively decorated.

The whole façade is dedicated to the Mother of Christ.

Main Portal[wysig | wysig bron]

The three huge bronze doors date from 1899 to 1903. They are adorned with scenes from the life of the Madonna. The mosaics in the lunettes above the doors were designed by Niccolò Barabino. They represent (from left to right): Charity among the founders of Florentine philanthropic institutions; Christ enthroned with Mary and John the Baptist; and Florentine artisans, merchants and humanists. The pediment above the central portal contains a half-relief by Tito Sarrocchi of Mary enthroned holding a flowered scepter. Giuseppe Cassioli sculpted the right-hand door.

On top of the façade is a series of niches with the twelve Apostles with, in the middle, the Madonna with Child. Between the rose window and the tympanum, there is a gallery with busts of great Florentine artists.

Interieur[wysig | wysig bron]

Sjabloon:Refimprove section

Interieur van die katedraal
Groot klok wat deur Paolo Uccello versier is.
Dante en die Goddelike Komedie.
Vasari se fresko wat in 1568 begin is en in 1579 deur Federico Zuccari voltooi is.
Detail onder die koepel.
Die Laaste Oordeel (detail) onder die koepel.
Graftombe van Antonio d'Orso deur Tino da Camaino.

The Gothic interior is vast and gives an empty impression. The relative bareness of the church corresponds with the austerity of religious life, as preached by Girolamo Savonarola.

Many decorations in the church have been lost in the course of time, or have been transferred to the Museum Opera del Duomo, such as the magnificent cantorial pulpits (the singing galleries for the choristers) of Luca della Robbia and Donatello.

As this cathedral was built with funds from the public, some important works of art in this church honour illustrious men and military leaders of Florence:

• Lorenzo Ghiberti had a large artistic impact on the cathedral. Ghiberti worked with Filippo Brunelleschi on the cathedral for eighteen years and had a large number of projects on almost the whole east end. Some of his works were the stained glass designs, the bronze shrine of Saint Zenobius and marble revetments on the outside of the cathedral.

  • Dante Before the City of Florence by Domenico di Michelino (1465). This painting is especially interesting because it shows us, apart from scenes of the Divine Comedy, a view on Florence in 1465, a Florence such as Dante himself could not have seen in his time.
  • Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood by Paolo Uccello (1436). This almost monochrome fresco, transferred to canvas in the 19th century, is painted in terra verde, a color closest to the patina of bronze.
  • Equestrian statue of Niccolò da Tolentino by Andrea del Castagno (1456). This fresco, transferred on canvas in the 19th century, in the same style as the previous one, is painted in a color resembling marble. However, it is more richly decorated and gives more the impression of movement. Both frescoes portray the condottieri as heroic figures riding triumphantly. Both painters had problems when applying in painting the new rules of perspective to foreshortening: they used two unifying points, one for the horse and one for the pedestal, instead a single unifying point.
  • Busts of Giotto (by Benedetto da Maiano), Brunelleschi (by Buggiano – 1447), Marsilio Ficino, and Antonio Squarcialupi (a most famous organist). These busts all date from the 15th and the 16th centuries.

Above the main door is the colossal clock face with fresco portraits of four Prophets or Evangelists by Paolo Uccello (1443). This one-handed liturgical clock shows the 24 hours of the hora italica (Italian time), a period of time ending with sunset at 24 hours. This timetable was used until the 18th century. This is one of the few clocks from that time that still exist and are in working order.

The church is particularly notable for its 44 stained glass windows, the largest undertaking of this kind in Italy in the 14th and 15th century. The windows in the aisles and in the transept depict saints from the Old and the New Testament, while the circular windows in the drum of the dome or above the entrance depict Christ and Mary. They are the work of the greatest Florentine artists of their times, such as Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Paolo Uccello and Andrea del Castagno.

Christ crowning Mary as Queen, the stained-glass circular window above the clock, with a rich range of coloring, was designed by Gaddo Gaddi in the early 14th century.

Donatello designed the stained-glass window (Coronation of the Virgin) in the drum of the dome (the only one that can be seen from the nave).

The beautiful funeral monument of Antonio d'Orso (1323), bishop of Florence, was made by Tino da Camaino, the most important funeral sculptor of his time.

The monumental crucifix, behind the Bishop's Chair at the high altar, is by Benedetto da Maiano (1495–1497). The choir enclosure is the work of the famous Bartolommeo Bandinelli. The ten-paneled bronze doors of the sacristy were made by Luca della Robbia, who has also two glazed terracotta works inside the sacristy: Angel with Candlestick and Resurrection of Christ.

In the back of the middle of the three apses is the altar of Saint Zanobius, first bishop of Florence. Its silver shrine, a masterpiece of Ghiberti, contains the urn with his relics. The central compartment shows us one of his miracles, the reviving of a dead child. Above this shrine is the painting Last Supper by the lesser-known Giovanni Balducci. There was also a glass-paste mosaic panel The Bust of Saint Zanobius by the 16th-century miniaturist Monte di Giovanni, but it is now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo.

Many decorations date from the 16th-century patronage of the Grand Dukes, such as the pavement in colored marble, attributed to Baccio d'Agnolo and Francesco da Sangallo (1520–26). Some pieces of marble from the façade were used, topside down, in the flooring (as was shown by the restoration of the floor after the 1966 flooding).

It was suggested that the interior of the 45 metre (147 ft) wide dome should be covered with a mosaic decoration to make the most of the available light coming through the circular windows of the drum and through the lantern. Brunelleschi had proposed the vault to glimmer with resplendent gold, but his death in 1446 put an end to this project, and the walls of the dome were whitewashed. Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici decided to have the dome painted with a representation of The Last Judgment. This enormous work, 3,600 metres² (38 750 ft²) of painted surface, was started in 1568 by Giorgio Vasari and Federico Zuccari and would last till 1579. The upper portion, near the lantern, representing The 24 Elders of Apoc. 4 was finished by Vasari before his death in 1574. Federico Zuccari and a number of collaborators, such as Domenico Cresti, finished the other portions: (from top to bottom) Choirs of Angels; Christ, Mary and Saints; Virtues, Gifts of the Holy Spirit and Beatitudes; and at the bottom of the cupola: Capital Sins and Hell. These frescoes are considered Zuccari's greatest work. But the quality of the work is uneven because of the input of different artists and the different techniques. Vasari had used true fresco, while Zuccari had painted in secco. During the restoration work, which ended in 1995, the entire pictorial cycle of The Last Judgment was photographed with specially designed equipment and all the information collected in a catalogue. All the restoration information along with reconstructed images of the frescos were stored and managed in the Thesaurus Florentinus computer system.[34][35]

Grafkelder[wysig | wysig bron]

Graftombe van Filippo Brunelleschi.

The cathedral underwent difficult excavations between 1965 and 1974. The archaeological history of this huge area was reconstructed through the work of Dr. Franklin Toker: remains of Roman houses, an early Christian pavement, ruins of the former cathedral of Santa Reparata and successive enlargements of this church. Close to the entrance, in the part of the crypt open to the public, is the tomb of Brunelleschi. While its location is prominent, the actual tomb is simple and humble. That the architect was permitted such a prestigious burial place is proof of the high esteem he was given by the Florentines.[verwysing benodig]

Ander teraardebestelings[wysig | wysig bron]

Notas[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. Ermengem, Kristiaan Van. "Duomo di Firenze, Florence". A View On Cities (in Engels). Besoek op 5 Februarie 2016.
  2. Bartlett, bl. 36–37; volgens Bartlett het die inwoners van Florence vir 'n geruime tyd na konstruksie daarvan voortgegaan om die katedraal ingevolge sy voormalige naam te noem.
  3. Tarihi, Güncelleme (23 Mei 2018). "Michelangelo Rönesans döneminde Floransanın önde gelen Medici Ailesinin özel bir isteği üzerine hangisini yapmıştır". Haber46 (in Turks). Besoek op 5 Julie 2018.
  4. 4,0 4,1 Barlett, 36.
  5. Haines, Margaret (1989). “Brunelleschi and Bureaucracy: The Tradition of Public Patronage at the Florentine Cathedral”. I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 3: 89–115. doi:10.2307/4603662.
  6. Krén, Emil; Marx, Daniel. "View of the nave and choir by ARNOLFO DI CAMBIO". Web Gallery of Art. Besoek op 5 Julie 2018.
  7. Sannio, Simone (12 Januarie 2017). "Inside the House of Medici (Part II): Palazzo Vecchio". L'Italo-Americano. Besoek op 5 Julie 2017.
  8. Zucconi, Guido (1995). Florence: An Architectural Guide. San Giovanni Lupatoto, Vr, Italy: Arsenale Editrice srl. ISBN 978-88-7743-147-9.
  9. King, bl. 76–79.
  10. "Santa Maria Del Fiore Church (Dome) Firenze Italy". En.firenze-online.com. Besoek op 26 March 2013.
  11. Charles Seymour, Jr. "Homo Magnus et Albus: the Quattrocento Background for Michelangelo's David of 1501–04," Stil und Überlieferung in der Kunst des Abendlandes, Berlin, 1967, II, 96–105.
  12. Janson, pp. 3–7
  13. Pope-Hennessey, John (1958) Italian Renaissance Sculpture, London, pp. 6–7
  14. Poeschke, p. 27.
  15. Seymour, 100–101.
  16. King, p. 10
  17. King, p. 9.
  18. King, p. 7.
  19. Lancaster, Lynne (2005) Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context, Cambridge University Press, p. 44
  20. PBS' The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, Birth of a Dynasty (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FFDJK8jmms at the 20:15 mark)
  21. The Secrets of the Florentine Dome: The Secrets of the Florentine Dome, accessdate: 25 January 2017
  22. Verwysingfout: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named smarth
  23. Stevenson, Niel (2007) Architecture Explained. ISBN 0756628687. pp. 36–37.
  24. King, pp. 70–73.
  25. King, p. 97.
  26. Mueller, Tom (10 February 2014). "Mystery of Florence's Cathedral Dome May Be Solved". National Geographic Society. Besoek op 31 December 2014.
  27. NationalGeographic.com 2014-02 Il Duomo Tom Mueller
  28. NationalGeographic.com 2014-02 Il Doumo Design Video
  29. King, pp. 105–107.
  30. Gartner, Peter, Filippo Brunelleschi 1377–1446, p 95.
  31. King, p. 69.
  32. Paolo Galluzzi, "Leonard de Vinci, engineer and architect", p. 50
  33. Figures vary. archINFORM gives a 45 m wide tambour, while Sjabloon:Structurae gives a 43 m diameter of the cupola, others as little as 42 m.
  34. As referenced in "Cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore: il cantiere di restauro 1980–1995" by Cristina Acidini Luchinat and Riccardo Dalla Negra published by Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (Roma) in 1995 (ISBN 8824039561)
  35. Thesaurus Florentinus project page (in Italian), Soprintendenza ai Beni Architettonici e Paesaggisitici di Firenze, Ministero dei Beni Culturali

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