Gebruiker:Charlielv55/sandput/Masaccio

in Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Masaccio
’n Beeld van die betrokke persoonlikheid.
Detail van Petrus wat die Seun van Theophilus ophef en as die Eerste Biskop van Antiogië Gekroon word, Brancacci-kapel, S. Maria del Carmine, Florence

Geboortenaam Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone (Simone) Cassai
Gebore (1401-12-21)21 Desember 1401
San Giovanni Valdarno, Republiek van Florence
Oorlede somer 1428 (ouderdom, 26)
Nasionaliteit Italiaans

Masaccio (Engelse uitspraak (VK): m|æ|ˈ|s|æ|tʃ|i|oʊ, Engelse uitspraak (VSA): m|ə|ˈ|s|ɑː|tʃ|i|oʊ|,_|m|ə|ˈ|z|ɑː|tʃ|(|i|)|oʊ,[1][2][3] Italiaans: maˈzattʃo; 21 Desember 1401 – somer 1428), gebore as Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was 'n Florentynse kunstenaar wat beskou word as die eerste groot Italiaanse skilder van die Quattrocentotydperk van die Italiaanse Renaissance. Masaccio was volgens Vasari as gevolg van sy vaardigheid wat betref die namaak van natuurtonele en die herskepping van lewensgetroue figure en bewegings, sowel as die vermoë om 'n oortuigende atmosfeer van drie-dimensionaliteit te skep, die beste skilder van sy generasie gewees.[4] Hy het van naakfigure en voorverkortings in sy figure gebruik gemaak. Die tegniek was selde voor hom van gebruik gemaak.[5]

Die naam Masaccio is 'n humoristiese weergawe van Maso (kort vir for Tommaso), wat "lomp" (ook "onhandig") of "rommelig(e)" Tom beteken. Die naam kon dalk geskep gewees het ten einde hom van sy hoof teenstander of opponent; wat ook Maso genoem is, en weldra bekend sou staan as Masolino ("klein/delikate Tom"); te onderskei.

Ten spyte van sy kort loopbaan het hy 'n diepgaande invloed op ander kunstenaars uitgeoefen. Hy word beskou as die kunstenaar wat die vroeë Italiaanse Renaissance in die skilderkuns begin het met sy werk in die middel - en laat-1420's. Hy was een van die eerste kunstenaars om lineêre perspektief in sy skilderkuns te gebruik, met die gebruikmaking van sulke tegnieke soos verdwijnpunt wat sodoende vir die eerste keer in kuns gebruik is. Hy het wegbeweeg van die Internasionaal Gotiese styl en die uitvoerige ornamentasie van kunstenaars soos Gentile da Fabriano, na 'n meer naturalistiese styl wat gebruik gemaak het van perspektief en chiaroscuro vir groter realisme.

Masaccio het op die jeugdige ouderdom van ses-en-twintig jaar beswyk. Min is bekend oor die presiese omstandighede van sy dood.[6] Nadat hy verneem het van Masaccio se dood het die groot meester Filippo Brunelleschi gesê: "Ons het 'n enorme verlies gely." [7]

Vroeë lewe[wysig | wysig bron]

Masaccio was gebore as die seun van Giovanni di Simone Cassai en Jacopa di Martinozzo in Castel San Giovanni di Altura, nou San Giovanni Valdarno (vandag deel van die provinsie van Arezzo, Toskane).[8] Sy vader was 'n notaris en sy moeder die dogter van 'n herbergier van Barberino di Mugello, te wete 'n dorpie geleë 'n paar myl noord van Florence. Sy familienaam, Cassai, is afkomstig van die bedryf van sy oupa aan vaderskant, Simone, en grootoom Lorenzo, wat kabinetmakers en timmermanne was (casse, derhalwe cassai). Masaccio se vader het in 1406 gesterf toe hy slegs nog maar vyf jaar oud was; later dieselfde jaar was sy broer Giovanni (1406–1486), vernoem na sy vader, gebore. Hy sou ook 'n skilder word, met die noemnaam lo Scheggia wat "die splinter" beteken het.[9] In 1412 is Monna Jacopa getroud met 'n bejaarde apteker genaamd Tedesco di maestro Feo wat reeds sewe dogters gehad het, waarvan een grootgeword het om met die enigste ander gedokumenteerde skilder van Castel San Giovanni,Mariotto di Cristofano, te trou. (1393–1457). Daar is geen beskikbare bewysmateriaal wat Masaccio se artistieke opvoeding betref nie,[10] alhoewel Renaissance skilders gewoonlik op die leeftyd van twaalf jaar 'n vakleerlingskap onder 'n gevestigde meester begin het. Masaccio sou in all waarskynlikheid na Florence moes trek om opleiding te ontvang, maar hy was nie gedokumenteer in die stad totdat hy aangesluit het by die skildersgilde (die Arte de' Medici e Speziali) as 'n onafhanklike meester op 7 Januarie 1422 nie, toe hy geteken het as "Masus S. Johannis Simonis pictor populi S. Nicholae de Florentia."

Eerste werke[wysig | wysig bron]

Die eerste werke wat aan Masaccio toegeskryf word is die San Giovenale Triptiek (1422), wat nou in die Museum van Cascia di Reggello naby Florence gehuisves word, en die Maagd en Kind met die heilige Anna (Sant'Anna Metterza) (c. 1424) in die Uffizi.

San Giovenale Triptiek (1422)

Die San Giovenale altaarstuk was in 1961 in die kerk van San Giovenale by Cascia di Reggello, naby Masaccio se tuisdorp, ontdek. Dit beeld die Maagd en Kind met engele in die sentrale paneel; die heiliges Bartolomeus en Blaise op die linkerpaneel; en die heiliges Juvenal (d.i. San Giovenale) en Abbe Antonie op die regterpaneel, uit. Die skildery het die meeste van sy oorspronklike raamwerk verloor en die oppervlak daarvan is erg beskadig.[11] Nietemin was Masaccio se doelwit die daarstelling van drie-dimensionaliteit deur volumetriese figure en voorverkorte vorms. Die werk word alom waardeer as 'n hernuwing van Giotto se benadering, eerder as 'n voortsetting van kontemporêre modes van die dag.

Masolino & Masaccio, Maagd en Kind met die heilige Anna (c. 1424), Uffizi

Die tweede werk was miskien Masaccio se eerste samewerking met die ouer en alreeds-beroemde kunstenaar, Masolino da Panicale (1383/4–c. 1436) gewees. Die omstandighede van die twee kunstenaars se samewerking is egter onbekend; aangesien Masolini heelwat ouer was wil dit voorkom asof hy Masaccio onder sy tutorskap geneem het. Die verdeling van arbeid in die Maagd en Kind met die heilige Anna is egter van so 'n aard dat dit moeilik is om te sien hoe die ouer kunstenaar die beherende figuur in die werk kon wees.[12] Daar word geglo dat Masolino die figuur van die heilige Anna en die engele geskilder het wat die bekleedsel agter haar vashou, terwyl Masaccio die belangriker figure van die Maag en Kind op hul troon geskilder het. Masolini se figure is delikaat, grasievol en ietwat plat, terwyl Masaccio se figure solied en stewig is.

Maturity[wysig | wysig bron]

In Florence, Masaccio could study the works of Giotto and become friends with Brunelleschi and Donatello. According to Vasari, at their prompting in 1423 Masaccio travelled to Rome with Masolino: from that point he was freed of all Gothic and Byzantine influence, as seen in his altarpiece for the Carmelite Church in Pisa. The traces of influences from ancient Roman and Greek art that are present in some of Masaccio's works presumably originated from this trip: they should also have been present in a lost Sagra, (today known through some drawings, including one by Michelangelo), a fresco commissioned for the consecration ceremony of the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence (April 19, 1422). It was destroyed when the church's cloister was rebuilt at the end of the 16th century.

The Tribute Money, fresco in the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

Brancacci Chapel[wysig | wysig bron]

In 1424, the "duo preciso e noto" ("well and known duo") of Masaccio and Masolino was commissioned by the powerful and wealthy Felice Brancacci to execute a cycle of frescoes for the Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence. With the two artists probably working simultaneously, the painting began around 1425, but for unknown reasons the chapel was left unfinished, and was completed by Filippino Lippi in the 1480s. The iconography of the fresco decoration is somewhat unusual; while the majority of the frescoes represent the life of St. Peter, two scenes, on either side of the threshold of the chapel space, depict the temptation and expulsion of Adam and Eve. As a whole, the frescoes recount the life of St Peter as if it were the story of salvation.[13] The style of Masaccio's scenes shows the influence of Giotto especially. Figures are large, heavy, and solid; emotions are expressed through faces and gestures; and there is a strong impression of naturalism throughout the paintings. Unlike Giotto, however, Masaccio uses linear and atmospheric perspective, directional light, and chiaroscuro, which is the representation of form through light and color without outlines. As a result, his frescoes are even more convincingly lifelike than those of his trecento predecessor.

Works of the chapel[wysig | wysig bron]

When it was cleaned in the 1980s, Masaccio's fresco of The Expulsion (1426–1427) lost the added fig leaves.

The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, depicts a distressed Adam and Eve, chased from the garden by a threatening angel. Adam covers his entire face to express his shame, while Eve's shame requires her to cover certain areas of her body. The fresco had a huge influence on Michelangelo and his work. Another major work is The Tribute Money in which Jesus and the Apostles are depicted as neo-classical archetypes. Scholars have often noted that the shadows of the figures all fall away from the chapel window, as if the figures are lit by it; this is an added stroke of verisimilitude and further tribute to Masaccio's innovative genius. In the Resurrection of the Son of Theophilus, he painted a pavement in perspective, framed by large buildings to obtain a three-dimensional space in which the figures are placed proportionate to their surroundings. In this he was a pioneer in applying the newly discovered rules of perspective.

On September 1425 Masolino left the work and went to Hungary. It is not known if this was because of money quarrels with Felice or an artistic divergence with Masaccio. It has also been supposed that Masolino planned this trip from the very beginning, and needed a close collaborator who could continue the work after his departure. But Masaccio left the frescoes unfinished in 1426 in order to respond to other commissions, probably coming from the same patron. However, it has also been suggested that the declining finances of Felice Brancacci were insufficient to pay for any further work, so the painter sought work elsewhere.

Raising of the Son of Theophilus of Antioch

Masaccio returned in 1427 to work again in the Carmine, beginning the Resurrection of the Son of Theophilus, but apparently left it, too, unfinished, though it has also been suggested that the painting was severely damaged later in the century because it contained portraits of the Brancacci family, at that time excoriated as enemies of the Medici.[14] This painting was either restored or completed more than fifty years later by Filippino Lippi. Some of the scenes completed by Masaccio and Masolino were lost in a fire in 1771; we know about them only through Vasari's biography. The surviving parts were extensively blackened by smoke. In the twentieth century, the removal of marble slabs covering two areas of the paintings revealed the original appearance of the work.[15]

Pisa Altarpiece[wysig | wysig bron]

On February 19, 1426 Masaccio was commissioned by Giuliano di Colino degli Scarsi da San Giusto, for the sum of 80 florins, to paint a major altarpiece, the Pisa Altarpiece, for his chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pisa. The work was dismantled and dispersed in the 18th century, and only eleven of about twenty original panels have been rediscovered in various collections around the world.[16] The central panel of the altarpiece (The Madonna and Child) is now in the National Gallery, London. Although it is very damaged, the work features a sculptural and human Madonna as well as a convincing perspectival depiction of her throne. Masaccio probably worked on it entirely in Pisa, shuttling back and forth to Florence, where he was still working on the Brancacci Chapel. In these years, Donatello was also working in Pisa at a monument for Cardinal Rinaldo Brancacci, to be sent to Naples. It is suggested that Masaccio's first ventures in plasticity and perspective were based on Donatello's sculpture, before he could study Brunelleschi's more scientific approach to perspective.

Heilige Drie-eenheid[wysig | wysig bron]

Heilige Drie-eenheid, in full: Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors (c. 1427) - Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence

Around 1427 Masaccio won a prestigious commission to produce a Holy Trinity for the Dominican church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. No contemporary documents record the patron of the fresco, but recently references to ownership of a tomb at the foot of the fresco have been found in the records of the Berti family of the Santa Maria Novella Quarter of Florence; this working-class family expressed a long-standing devotion to the Trinity, and may well have commissioned Masaccio's painting.[17] Probably it is the male patron who is represented to the left of the Virgin in the painting, while his wife is right of St. John the Evangelist. The fresco, considered by many to be Masaccio's masterwork, is the earliest surviving painting to use systematic linear perspective, possibly devised by Masaccio with the assistance of Brunelleschi[18].

According to the reconstruction[19] Masaccio started by producing a rough drawing of the composition and perspective lines on the wall. The drawing was covered with fresh plaster for making the fresco. To ensure the precise transfer of the perspective lines from the sketch to the plaster, Masaccio inserted a nail in at the vanishing point under the base of the cross and attached strings to it, which he pressed in (or carved into) the plaster. The marks of the preparatory works are still visible.

The sacred figures and the donors are represented above an image of a skeleton lying on a sarcophagus. An inscription seemingly carved into the wall above the skeleton reads: "Io fui gia quel che voi siete e quel ch'io sono voi anco sarete" (I once was what now you are and what I am, you shall yet be). This skeleton is at once a reference to Adam, whose sin brought humans to death and a reminder to viewers that their time on earth is transitory. It is only through faith in the Trinity, the fresco suggests, that one overcomes this death.[20] The Holy Spirit is seen in the form of a dove, above Jesus.[21] The combination of trinity, death and decay "can be interpreted as a transposition of the Golgotha chapel"[19] in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

Ander skilderye[wysig | wysig bron]

Masaccio het twee ander werke naamlik; 'n toneel van die geboorte van Christus en 'n Aankondiging (nou verlore) gemaak voordat hy vir Rome vetrek het waar sy metgesel Masolini besig was met 'n fresko van tonele uit die lewe van die heilige Katrina in die Basilica di San Clemente. Dit is nooit bevestig dat Masaccio inderdaad meegewerk het op die stuk nie, alhoewel dit moontlik is dat hy bygedra het tot Masolini se triptiek vir die altaar van die Santa Maria Maggiore met sy paneel wat die heilige Hieronymus en heilige Johannes die Doper uitbeeld, welke nou in die Nasionale Galery in Londen gehuisves word. Masaccio het aan die einde van 1428 beswyk. Volgens legende was hy deur 'n jaloerse mededinger vergiftig.[22]Slegs vier fresko's wat onweerlegbaar van Masaccio afkomstig is, bestaan steeds, alhoewel ander werke ten minste gedeeltelik aan hom toegeskryf kan word.

Erfenis[wysig | wysig bron]

Masaccio het die skilderkuns diep beïnvloed. Baie is van mening dat hy die vroeë Italiaanse Renaissance in skilderkuns begin het. Volgens Vasari het byna al die "mees gevierde" Florentynse "beeldhouers en skilders" sy fresko's uitvoerig gestudeer ten einde die "voorskrifte en reëls van die skilderkuns te leer en te begryp". Hy het die rigting van die Italiaanse skilderkuns getransformeer deur dit weg te beweeg van die idealisering van Gotiese kuns, en dit vir die eerste keer voorgestel as iets wat deel is van 'n meer diepliggende, natuurlike en humanistiese wêreld. Masaccio het bygevolg 'n groot aantal kunstenaars beïnvloed; beide voor en na sy afsterwe. Sy invloed in veral merkbaar in die werke van mindere Florentynse meesters soos Andrea di Giusto, Giovanni dal Ponte, en andere, wat gepoog het om sy gloeiende, lewensgetroue vorme na te maak.

Hoofwerke[wysig | wysig bron]

Maagd Maria met halo, deur Masaccio (1426).[23]

Sien ook[wysig | wysig bron]

Verwysings en bronne[wysig | wysig bron]

Verwysings
  1. "Masaccio" (VSA) en Sjabloon:Cite Oxford Dictionaries
  2. Sjabloon:Cite American Heritage Dictionary
  3. Sjabloon:Cite Merriam-Webster
  4. Giorgio Vasari, Le Vite de' piu eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori, ed. Gaetano Milanesi, Florence, 1906, II, 287-288.
  5. Vasari, Giorgio, "The Lives of the Artists" Translated by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella, Oxford World Classics.
  6. The Guardian, Masaccio, the old master who died young
  7. Vasari, Giorgio, "The Lives of the Artists" Translated by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter Bondanella, Oxford World Classics.
  8. John T. Spike, Masaccio, New York: 1996, 21-64, and Diane Cole Ahl, The Cambridge Companion to Masaccio, Cambridge, 2002, 3-5.
  9. Wat Giovanni se loopbaan betref sien Luciano Bellosi en Margaret Haines, Lo Scheggia, Florence, 1999.
  10. Vasari (II, 295) impliseer dat Masolino Masaccio se leermeester was, maar die vroeg bekendste werk deur Masaccio (die San Giovenale Triptiek) is geskilder in 'n styl wat so verskil van Masolino se benadering dat dit moeilik is om die twee te vereenselwig (Luciano Berti, "Masaccio 1422," Commentari 12 (1961) 84-107. Kenners kan nie ooreenstem op enige leermeester vir die jong kunstenaar nie, alhoewel verskeie name (Mariotto di Cristofano, Bicci di Lorenzo, Niccolo di ser Lapo) al in die verband genoem is. Kenners het onlangs ook voorgestel dat hy opgelei kon wees as 'n manuskrip helper. Roberto Bellucci en Cecilia Frosinini, "Masaccio: Technique in Context," in The Cambridge Companion to Masaccio, red. Diane Cole Ahl, Cambridge, 2002, 105-122.
  11. Roberto Bellucci and Cecilia Frosinini, "The San Giovenale Altarpiece," in The Panel Paintings of Masolino and Masaccio, red. Carl Brandon Strehlke, Milaan, 2002, 69-79; Dillian Gordon, "The Altarpieces of Masaccio," in The Cambridge Companion to Masaccio, red. Diane Cole Ahl, Cambridge, 2002, 124-126.
  12. Roberto Longhi, "Fatti di Masolino e di Masaccio," Critica d'arte 25-6 (1940) 145-191.
  13. Umberto Baldini and Ornella Casazza, The Brancacci Chapel, New York, 1990; Diane Cole Ahl, "The Brancacci Chapel," in The Cambridge Companion to Masaccio, ed. Diane Cole Ahl, Cambridge, 2002, 138-157; J.T. Spike, “The Brancacci Code,” in Watching Art: Writings in Honor of James Beck, ed. L. Catterson and M. Zucker (Todi: Ediart, 2006), pp. 247–54.
  14. Casazza, Ornella. 1990. Masaccio and the Brancacci Chapel. Antella, Firenze, Italy: Scala. p. 46. OCLC 25093965
  15. Casazza, Ornella. 1990. Masaccio and the Brancacci Chapel. Antella, Firenze, Italy: Scala. p. 15. OCLC 25093965
  16. Jill Dunkerton and Dillian Gordon, "The Pisa Altarpiece", in The Panel Paintings of Masolino and Masaccio: The Role of Technique, ed. Carl Brandon Strehlke, Milan, 2002, 89-109.
  17. Rita Maria Comanducci, "'L'altare Nostro de la Trinità': Masaccio's Trinity and the Berti Family," The Burlington Magazine, 145 (2003) 14-21. Most scholars had thought that the Lenzi family commissioned the fresco: Ugo Procacci, "Nuove testimonianze su Masaccio," Commentari, 27 (1976) 233-4; Rona Goffen, Masaccio's "Trinity," Cambridge, 1998; Timothy Verdon, "Masaccio's Trinity," in The Cambridge Companion to Masaccio, ed. Diane Cole Ahl, Cambridge, 2002, 158-160.
  18. https://www.laetitiana.co.uk/single-post/2018/03/11/Masaccio-1401-28
  19. 19,0 19,1 B. Deimling, Early Renaissance Art in Florence and Central Italy, in R. Tolman (ed.), The Art of Italian Renaissance, Konemann, 1995, p. 244-246
  20. Alessandro Cortesi, "Una lettura teologica," in La Trinità di Masaccio: il restauro dell'anno duemila, ed. Cristina Danti, Florence, 2002, 49-56; Verdon, 158-161.
  21. Cothren, Marilyn Stokstad Michael W. (2010). Art History Portable, Book 4 14th-17th Century Art (4th ed., Portable uitg.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0205790944.
  22. "Tommaso Cassai Masaccio Biography". Artble (in Engels). Besoek op 2017-02-14.
  23. Mack, bl.66
Bronne
  • Mack, Rosamond E. Bazaar to Piazza: Islamic Trade and Italian Art, 1300-1600, University of California Press, 2001 ISBN 0-520-22131-1

Eksterne skakels[wysig | wysig bron]