Die sukses van klein, turbo-aangedrewe, [[vierwielaandrywing|vierwielaangedrewe]] voertuie in tydrenne, wat begin het met die [[Audi Quattro]] het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van padvoertuie soos die [[Lancia Integrale]], [[Toyota Celica GT-four]], [[Subaru Impreza WRX]] en die [[Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution]].
Compressor impeller side with the cover removed
side housing removed
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In the late 1970s, Ford and GM looked to the turbocharger to gain power, without sacrificing fuel consumption, during not only the emissions crunch of the federal government but also a gas shortage. GM released turbo versions of the Pontiac Firebird, Buick Regal, and Chevy Monte Carlo. Ford responded with a turbocharged Mustang in the form of the 2.3L from the Pinto. The engine design was dated, but it worked well. The bullet-proof 2.3L Turbo was used in early carburated trim as well as fuel injected and intercooled versions in the Mustang SVO and the Thunderbird Turbo Coupe until 1988. GM also liked the idea enough to evolve the 3.8L V6 used in early turbo Buicks into late 80's muscle in the form of the Buick Grand National and the pinical GNX.
Although late to use turbocharging, [[Chrysler|Chrysler Corporation]] turned to turbochargers in 1984 and quickly churned out more turbocharged engines than any other manufacturer, using turbocharged, fuel-injected 2.2 and 2.5 litre four-cylinder engines in minivans, sedans, convertibles, and coupes. Their 2.2 litre turbocharged engines ranged from 142 hp to 225 hp, a substantial gain over the normally aspirated ratings of 86 to 93 horsepower; the 2.5 litre engines had about 150 horsepower and had no intercooler. Though the company stopped using turbochargers in 1993, they returned to turbocharged engines in 2002 with their 2.4 litre engines, boosting output by 70 horsepower. <ref>[http://www.allpar.com/mopar/22t.html Chrysler turbocharged engines (Allpar)]</ref>
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Turbocharger implementations are often referred to in terms of stages, where a simple turbocharger setup may be denoted Stage I and more advanced developments as Stage II, III etc.
In terms of motorcycle turbochargers, a Stage I system is usually a 'bolt-on' upgrade that requires only minimal alteration to the engine, whereas a later stage may involve increasing injector sizes and fuel pressure regulators, and so on.
(More information needed)
[[Image:Turbo-chra.jpg|thumb|250px|right|On the left, the brass oil drain connection. On the right are the braided oil supply line and water coolant line connections.]] ▲
[[Image:Turbo-compressor.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Compressor impeller side with the cover removed]]
[[Image:Turbo-turbine.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Turbine side housing removed.]]
[[Image:Turboexternalgate.jpg|thumb|250px|right|A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger.]]
The turbocharger has four main components. The [[turbine]] and [[impeller]] wheels are each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component, the center hub rotating assembly (CHRA).
The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. The size and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. The area of the cone to radius from center hub is expressed as a ratio (AR, A/R, or A:R). Often the same basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple AR choices for the turbine housing and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between performance, response, and efficiency to application or preference. Both housings resemble [[snail]] shells, and thus turbochargers are sometimes referred to in [[slang]] as ''angry snails''.
The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can be flowed through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they operate. Generally, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel, the larger the flow capacity. Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels.
The center hub rotating assembly houses the shaft which connects the compressor impeller and turbine. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. For instance, in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. The CHRA may also be considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be cycled. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be used to keep the lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil [[Coke (fuel)|coking]] from the extreme heat found in the turbine.