Instructions per second (IPS) is 'n eenheid waarin 'n rekenaar se verwerkingsspoed gemeet word. Baie aangewyse IPS waardes het eintlik "maksimum" verwerkings op 'n kunsmatige instruksie sekwensie met min vertakkings, waarby die realistiese werklas 'n mengsel van uitvoerbare instruksies en selfs toepassings (engels: applications), waarvan sommiges langer benodig as ander. The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, researchers created standardized tests such as SPECint to (maybe) measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications, and raw IPS has fallen into disuse.
The term is commonly used in association with a numeric value such as thousand instructions per second (kIPS), million instructions per second (MIPS), or Million Operations per Second (MOPS).
Thousand instructions per second[wysig | wysig bron]
A thousand instructions per second (kIPS) is rarely used, as most current microprocessors can execute several million instructions per second. The thousand means 1000 not 1024.
kIPS is also a common joke name for 16 bit microprocessor designs developed in undergraduate computer engineering courses that use the text Computer Organization and Design by Patterson and Hennessy (ISBN 1-55860-428-6), which explains computer architecture concepts in terms of the MIPS architecture. Such architectures tend to be scaled down versions of the MIPS R2000 architecture.
Million instructions per second[wysig | wysig bron]
MIPS are not comparable between CPU architectures. This and other limitations of the unit lead many computer engineers to define MIPS as "Meaningless Indicator of Processor Speed."
The floating-point arithmetic equivalent of MIPS is FLOPS, to which the same cautions apply.
In the 1970s, minicomputer performance was compared using VAX MIPS, where computers were measured on a task and their performance rated against the VAX 11/780 that was marketed as a "1 MIPS" machine. (The measure was also known as the "VAX Unit of Performance" or VUP. Though orthographically incorrect, the "S" in "VUPs" is sometimes written in upper case.) This was chosen because the 11/780 was roughly equivalent in performance to an IBM System/370 model 158-3, which was commonly accepted in the computing industry as running at 1 MIPS.
Most 8-bit and early 16-bit microprocessors have a performance measured in kIPS (thousand instructions per second), which equals 0.001 MIPS. The first general purpose microprocessor, the Intel i8080, ran at 640 kIPS. The Intel i8086 microprocessor, the first 16-bit microprocessor in the line of processors made by Intel and used in IBM PCs, ran at 800 kIPS. Early 32-bit PCs (386) ran at about 3 MIPS.
Timeline of instructions per second[wysig | wysig bron]
|Pencil and paper (for comparison)||0.0119 IPS||n/a||1892|||
|Intel 4004||92 kIPS at 740 kHz||0.124||1971|
|IBM System/370 model 158-3||1 MIPS||?||1972|
|Intel 8080||640 kIPS at 2 MHz||0.32 MIPS/MHz||1974|
|VAX 11/780||500 kIPS||?||1977|
|Motorola 68000||1 MIPS at 8 MHz||0.125 MIPS/MHz||1979|
|Motorola 68020||4 MIPS at 20 MHz||0.2 MIPS/MHz||1984|
|ARM2||4 MIPS at 8 MHz||0.5 MIPS/MHz||1986|
|Motorola 68030||11 MIPS at 33 MHz||0.33 MIPS/MHz||1987|
|Intel 386DX||8.5 MIPS at 25 MHz||0.34 MIPS/MHz||1988|
|Motorola 68040||44 MIPS at 40 MHz||1.1 MIPS/MHz||1990|
|Intel 486DX||54 MIPS at 66 MHz||0.818 MIPS/MHz||1992|
|PowerPC 600s (G2)||35 MIPS at 33 MHz||1.06 MIPS/MHz||1994|
|Motorola 68060||88 MIPS at 66 MHz||1.33 MIPS/MHz||1994|
|Intel Pentium Pro||541 MIPS at 200 MHz||2.705 MIPS/MHz||1996|||
|ARM 7500FE||35.9 MIPS at 40 MHz||0.897 MIPS/MHz||1996|
|PowerPC G3||525 MIPS at 233 MHz||2.253 MIPS/MHz||1997|
|Zilog eZ80||80 MIPS at 50 MHz||1.6 MIPS/MHz||1999|||
|Intel Pentium III||1,354 MIPS at 500 MHz||2.708 MIPS/MHz||1999|
|AMD Athlon||3,561 MIPS at 1.2 GHz||2.967 MIPS/MHz||2000|
|AMD Athlon XP 2400+||5,935 MIPS at 2.0 GHz||2.967 MIPS/MHz||2002|
|Pentium 4 Extreme Edition||9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz||3.039 MIPS/MHz||2003|
|ARM Cortex A8||2,000 MIPS at 1.0 GHz||2.0 MIPS/MHz||2005|||
|Xbox360 IBM "Xenon" Triple Core||9,600 MIPS at 3.2 GHz||2.0 MIPS/MHz||2005|
|P.A. Semi PA6T-1682M||8,800 MIPS at 2.0 GHz||4.4 MIPS/MHz||2007|||
|AMD Athlon FX-57||12,000 MIPS at 2.8 GHz||4.285 MIPS/MHz||2005|
|AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (Dual Core)||14,564 MIPS at 2.0 GHz||7.282 MIPS/MHz||2005|||
|AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual Core)||18,938 MIPS at 2.6 GHz||7.283 MIPS/MHz||2006|||
|PS3 Cell BE||21,800 MIPS at 3.2 GHz||3.2 MIPS/MHz||2006|
|Intel Core 2 X6800||27,079 MIPS at 2.93 GHz||9.242 MIPS/MHz||2006|||
|Intel Core 2 Extreme QX6700||57,063 MIPS at 3.33 GHz||17.136 MIPS/MHz||2006|||
|Intel Polaris Prototype||1,800,000 MIPS (MFLOPS) at 5.8 GHz||310.4 MIPS/MHz||2007|
Sien ook[wysig | wysig bron]
- benchmark (computing)
- million service units (MSU)
- Peak MIPS
- Relative MIPS
- Dhrystone MIPS (DMIPS)