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Die tabelle hieronder wys hoe die Internasionale Fonetiese Alfabet (IFA) gebruik word om Spaanse uitspraak in Wikipedia-artikels te verteenwoordig.

IFA Voorbeelde English approximation
b[1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol best
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva between baby and bevy
d[1] dedo; cuando; aldaba dead, but putting the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth
ð diva; arder; admirar this
f fase; café face
ɡ[1] gato; lengua; guerra got
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
ʝ[1][2] ayuno; poyo you
ɟʝ[1][2] cónyuge; abyecto job
k caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
l lino; alhaja; principal lean
ʎ[1][2] llave; pollo million
m[3] madre; comer; campo; anfibio mother
n[3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum need
ɲ[3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar canyon
ŋ[3] cinco; venga; conquista sing
p pozo; topo spouse
r[4] rumbo; carro; honra; amor; paterno trilled r
ɾ[4] caro; bravo; amor eterno batter (American English)
s[5] saco; espita; xenón sack
θ[5] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz thing
t tamiz; átomo stand, but putting the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth
chubasco; acechar choose
v[6] afgano van
x jamón; general; México;[7] hamster[8] Scottish loch
z[6] isla; mismo; deshuesar quiz
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
ʃ[9] show; Rocher; Freixenet shack
ts abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
IPA Examples English approximation
a azahar Cot (American English)
e vehemente set
i dimitir; mío; y see
o boscoso more
u cucurucho; dúo food
IPA Examples English approximation
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
w[11] cuadro; fuego; Huila; arduo; pingüino wine
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan


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  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/. Then, they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ] like English b, d, g, j, but they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts. When it is distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions Sjabloon:Harvcol.
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 Most speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from Sjabloon:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ contrast only before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the neutralized nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  4. 4,0 4,1 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with Sjabloon:IPAblink occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only Sjabloon:IPAblink is found elsewhere.
  5. 5,0 5,1 Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between Sjabloon:Angbr (Sjabloon:IPAslink) and soft Sjabloon:Angbr or Sjabloon:Angbr (Sjabloon:IPAslink). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as Sjabloon:IPAslink. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft Sjabloon:Angbr, Sjabloon:Angbr and even Sjabloon:Angbr as Sjabloon:IPAslink, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. 6,0 6,1 [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  7. The letter Sjabloon:Angbr represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
  8. The letter Sjabloon:Angbr represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
  9. /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as Sjabloon:IPAblink or Sjabloon:IPAblink; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  10. The semivowels Sjabloon:IPAblink and Sjabloon:IPAblink can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with Sjabloon:IPAslink and Sjabloon:IPAslink.
  11. Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].


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  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/s0025100303001373 
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