in Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie

Verslawing is 'n breinversteuring wat gekenmerk word deur kompulsiewe betrokkenheid by lonende stimuli ondanks nadelige gevolge.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Ondanks die betrokkenheid van 'n aantal psigososiale faktore, 'n biologiese proses — een wat veroorsaak word deur herhaalde blootstelling aan 'n verslawende stimulus — is die kern patologie wat die ontwikkeling en instandhouding van 'n verslawing dryf, volgens die "breinsiekte-model" van verslawing.[1] Baie geleerdes wat verslawing bestudeer, voer egter aan dat die breinsiekte-model onvolledig en misleidend is.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

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  1. 1,0 1,1
  4. Angres DH, Bettinardi-Angres K (Oktober 2008). "The disease of addiction: origins, treatment, and recovery". Disease-A-Month. 54 (10): 696–721. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2008.07.002. PMID 18790142.
  5. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 364–65, 375. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. "The defining feature of addiction is compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative consequences. ... compulsive eating, shopping, gambling, and sex – so-called "natural addictions" – Indeed, addiction to both drugs and behavioral rewards may arise from similar dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system."
  7. Hammer R, Dingel M, Ostergren J, Partridge B, McCormick J, Koenig BA (2013-07-01). "Addiction: Current Criticism of the Brain Disease Paradigm". AJOB Neuroscience. 4 (3): 27–32. doi:10.1080/21507740.2013.796328. PMC 3969751. PMID 24693488.
  8. Heather N, Best D, Kawalek A, Field M, Lewis M, Rotgers F, Wiers RW, Heim D (2018-07-04). "Challenging the brain disease model of addiction: European launch of the addiction theory network". Addiction Research & Theory (in Engels). 26 (4): 249–255. doi:10.1080/16066359.2017.1399659.
  9. Heather N (2017-04-01). "Q: Is Addiction a Brain Disease or a Moral Failing? A: Neither". Neuroethics. 10 (1): 115–124. doi:10.1007/s12152-016-9289-0. PMC 5486515. PMID 28725283.
  10. Satel S, Lilienfeld SO (2014). "Addiction and the brain-disease fallacy". Frontiers in Psychiatry (in English). 4: 141. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00141. PMC 3939769. PMID 24624096.AS1-onderhoud: onerkende taal (link)
  11. Peele S (Desember 2016). "People Control Their Addictions: No matter how much the "chronic" brain disease model of addiction indicates otherwise, we know that people can quit addictions - with special reference to harm reduction and mindfulness". Addictive Behaviors Reports. 4: 97–101. doi:10.1016/j.abrep.2016.05.003. PMC 5836519. PMID 29511729.
  12. Henden E (2017). "Addiction, Compulsion, and Weakness of the Will: A Dual-Process Perspective.". In Heather N, Gabriel S (reds.). Addiction and Choice: Rethinking the Relationship. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 116–132.

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