Blombosgrot

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Blombosgrot
Blombos.jpg
Koördinate 34°24′52″S 21°13′21″O / 34.41444°S 21.22250°O / -34.41444; 21.22250
Land Suid-Afrika
Soort Grot
Streek Wes-Kaap

Blombosgrot is ’n argeologiese terrein in die Blombosfontein-natuurreservaat naby Heidelberg, Wes-Kaap, sowat 300 km oos van Kaapstad. Die grot bevat neerslae van tussen omstreeks 100000 en 70000 v.C., uit die middel-Steentydperk, en tussen omstreeks 2000 en 300 v.C., uit die Neolitikum.[1][2][3][4] Opgrawings is in 1991 die eerste in die grot gedoen en sedert 1997 word veldwerk gereeld daar gedoen.[5]

Klipwerktuie van vroeë mense wat in Blombosgrot ontdek is.

Die opgrawings in Blombosgrot het belangrike nuwe inligting onthul oor die gedragsevolusie van die anatomies moderne mens en het bygedra tot die begrip van die ontstaan van vroeë gedragsinnoverings onder Homo sapiens in Suider-Afrika tydens die laat Pleistoseen.[6][7] Argeologiese materiaal en dieroorblyfsels uit die middel-Steentydperk van omstreeks 100000 tot 70000 v.C. illustreer vermoedelik onder meer groter ekologiese nisaanpassing, die gebruik van verskeie stappe in tegnologie en gereedskapvervaardiging, groter ekonomiese en sosiale organisasie en die voorkoms van simboliese gedrag.

Van die materiaal wat gevind is, sluit gegraveerde oker in,[8], asook okerprosesseringsgereedskap,[3] seeskulpkrale,[9][10][11] been- en klipgereedskap[12][13][14] en ’n groot reeks aard- en seedieroorblyfsels, insluitende dié van skulpvis, voëls, skilpaaie, doppe van volstruiseiers en soogdiere van verskeie groottes.[15][16][17] Hierdie vondste, tesame met ’n herontleding van en opgrawings op ander terreine uit die middel-Steentydperk in Suider-Afrika het gelei tot ’n beter begrip van tye en plekke in die ontwikkeling van die gedrag van die moderne mens.

Op 29 Mei 2015 het Erfenis Wes-Kaap die terrein as ’n provinsiale erfenisterrein geklassifiseer.[18]

’n Okertekening op ’n stuk klip wat in die grot ontdek is, is vermoedelik die vroegste bekende tekening in die wêreld deur ’n mens.[19]

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. Tribolo, C., et al. (2006) TL dating of burnt lithics from Blombos Cave (South Africa): further evidence for the antiquity of modern human behaviour. Archaeometry, 48, 341–357.
  2. Jacobs, Z., et al. (2006) Extending the chronology of deposits at Blombos Cave, South Africa, back to 140 ka using optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz. Journal of Human Evolution, 51, 255–73.
  3. 3,0 3,1 Henshilwood, Christopher S., et al. (2011) A 100,000-Year-Old Ochre-Processing Workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science, 334, 219–222, doi:10.1126/science.1211535.
  4. Jacobs, Zenobia, et al. (2013) An improved OSL chronology for the Still Bay layers at Blombos Cave, South Africa: further tests of single-grain dating procedures and a re-evaluation of the timing of the Still Bay industry across southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40, 579–594.
  5. Henshilwood, Christopher S. (2008) Holocene prehistory of the Southern Cape, South Africa : excavations at Blombos Cave and the Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, Oxford, Engeland, Archaeopress.
  6. McBrearty, Sally & Brooks, Alison S. (2000) The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution, 39, 453–563.
  7. Henshilwood, Christopher S. & Marean, Curtis W. (2003) The Origin of Modern Human Behavior: Critique of the Models and Their Test Implications. Current Anthropology, 44, 627–651.
  8. (2009) “Engraved ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa”. Journal of Human Evolution 57 (1): 27–47. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2009.01.005.
  9. Henshilwood, Christopher S., et al. (2004) Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa. Science, 304, 404.
  10. d'Errico, Francesco, et al. (2005) Nassarius kraussianus shell beads from Blombos Cave: evidence for symbolic behaviour in the Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution, 48, 3–24.
  11. Vanhaeren, Marian, et al. (2013) Thinking strings: Additional evidence for personal ornament use in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 64, 500–517.
  12. Henshilwood, Christopher S. & Sealy, Judith (1997) Bone Artefacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa. Current Anthropology, 38, 890–895.
  13. Henshilwood, Christopher S., et al. (2001a) An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins of modern human behaviour, symbolism and language. Journal of Human Evolution, 41, 631–78.
  14. d'Errico, Francesco & Henshilwood, Christopher S. (2007) Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution, 52, 142–63.
  15. van Niekerk, Karen Loise (2011) Marine fish exploitation during the Middle and Later Stone Age of South Africa. University of Cape Town.
  16. Henshilwood, Christopher S., et al. (2001b) Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: Preliminary Report on the 1992–1999 Excavations of the Middle Stone Age Levels. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28, 421–448.
  17. Thompson, Jessica C. & Henshilwood, Christopher S. (2011) Taphonomic analysis of the Middle Stone Age larger mammal faunal assemblage from Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 60, 746–767.
  18. Provincial Notice 163/2015, Province of the Western Cape Provincial Gazette, No 739, Cape Town: 29 May 2015
  19. Sample, Ian (12 September 2018). "Earliest known drawing found on rock in South African cave". the Guardian (in Engels). Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 30 Oktober 2019. Besoek op 12 September 2018.

Skakels[wysig | wysig bron]