GNU

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GNU
Heckert GNU white.svg
Ontwikkelaar
Die gemeenskap
Webblad www.gnu.org
Vrystellings
Lisensie GNU GPL, GNU LGPL, GNU AGPL, GNU FDL, GNU FSDG[1][2]
Kerntipe Linux
Taal(e) Veeltalig
Platforms wat ondersteun word IA-32 (net met Hurd kernel) en Alpha, ARC, ARM, AVR32, Blackfin, C6x, ETRAX CRIS, FR-V, H8/300, Hexagon, Itanium, M32R, m68k, META, Microblaze, MIPS, MN103, OpenRISC, PA-RISC, PowerPC, s390, S+core, SuperH, SPARC, TILE64, Unicore32, x86, Xtensa (net met Linux-libre)
Ondersteuningstatus
Verdere leesstof

GNU (uitspraak: /ɡnuː/)[3][4] is 'n bedryfstelsel en versameling van rekenaarsagteware.[5][6][7][8][9][10] GNU bestaan heeltemal uit vrye sagteware,[11][12][13] waarvan die meeste onder die GNU-projek se eie Algemene Publieke Lisensie (Engels: General Public License, GPL) gelisensieer is.

"GNU" is 'n rekursiewe akroniem vir "GNU's Not Unix!" (Engels, GNU is nie Unix nie).[11][14] Die akroniem is gekies omdat die ontwerp van GNU soortgelyk is aan dié van Unix, maar van Unix verskil deurdat dit vrye sagteware is en geen Unix-bronkode bevat nie.[11][15][16]

Die GNU-projek sluit 'n bedryfstelselkern, GNU Hurd, in, wat die oorspronklike fokus van die Free Software Foundation (Engels, Vrye Sagteware-stigting; FSF) was.[11][17][18][19] Aangesien Hurd se kern nog nie produksiegereed is nie,[20] word nie-GNU-kerne, byvoorbeeld die Linux-kern, met GNU-sagteware gebruik.[21][22] Die kombinasie van GNU-sagteware met die Linux-kern is so algemeen dat dit algemeen na verwys word as slegs Linux, en minder algemeen as GNU/Linux.

Richard Stallman, stigter van die GNU-projek, beskou GNU as 'n "tegniese middel tot 'n sosiale doeleinde".[23] Lawrence Lessig skryf in sy voorwoord tot die tweede uitgawe van Stallman se boek Free software, free society dat Stallman daarin oor "die sosiale aspekte van sagteware en hoe vrye sagteware gemeenskap en sosiale geregtigheid kan skep" skryf.[24]

Sien ook[wysig | wysig bron]

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. "GNU Licenses" (in Engels). Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 11 Mei 2020.
  2. "GNU FSDG" (in Engels). Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 2 Mei 2020.
  3. "What is GNU?". The GNU Operating System (in Engels). Free Software Foundation. 4 September 2009. Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 13 Mei 2020. Besoek op 9 Oktober 2009. The name ‘GNU’ is a recursive acronym for ‘GNU's Not Unix‘; it is pronounced g-noo, as one syllable with no vowel sound between the g and the n.
  4. (en) Stallman, Richard (9 Maart 2006). The Free Software Movement and the Future of Freedom. Zagreb, Kroasië: FSF Europe. Besoek op 20 Februarie 2007. Lay summary.
  5. (en) (Januarie 2007) “Modeling the evolution of operating systems: An empirical study”. Journal of Systems and Software 80 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2006.03.049. Besoek op 11 Januarie 2016.
  6. Snom Technology. "Source Code & GPL Open Source". www.snom.com (in Engels). Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 9 April 2018. Besoek op 8 April 2018. Variants of the GNU operating system, which use the kernel Linux, are now widely used; though these systems are often referred to as "Linux", they are more accurately called "GNU/Linux systems".
  7. (en) M. R. M. Torres; Federico Barrero; M. Perales; S. L. Toral (June 2011). Analysis of the Core Team Role in Open Source Communities (PDF). Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS), 2011 International Conference on. IEEE Computer Society. pp. 109–114. doi:10.1109/CISIS.2011.25. ISBN 978-1-61284-709-2. Besoek op 11 January 2016. Debian port to Hurd...: The GNU Hurd is a totally new operating system being put together by the GNU group.
  8. "GNU Operating System - CCM FAQ". CCM (in Engels). Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 15 Desember 2019. Besoek op 8 April 2018. GNU is an operating system that offers a set of free open source programs.
  9. (en) (4 Julie 2007) “A critique of the GNU hurd multi-server operating system”. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review 41 (4): 30–39. doi:10.1145/1278901.1278907. Besoek op 11 Januarie 2016.
  10. "All About Linux 2008: Aren't UNIX and Linux the same thing? Yes and no. – TechCrunch". techcrunch.com (in Engels). Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 15 Desember 2019. Besoek op 2 April 2018.
  11. 11,0 11,1 11,2 11,3 (en) St. Amant, Kirk; Still, Brian (2007). Handbook of Research on Open Source Software: Technological, Economic, and Social Perspectives. ISBN 978-1-59140999-1.
  12. "GNU Manifesto". GNU project (in Engels). FSF. Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 11 Mei 2020. Besoek op 27 Julie 2011.
  13. (en) Raymond, Eric (2001-02-01). The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. pp. 10–12. ISBN 978-0-59600108-7.
  14. (en) "GNU's Not Unix". The free dictionary. Besoek op 2012-09-22.
  15. Verwysingfout: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named gnu-projek
  16. Marshall, Rosalie (17 November 2008). "Q&A: Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU Project and the Free Software Foundation" (in Engels). AU: PC & Tech Authority. Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 28 Desember 2016. Besoek op 22 September 2012.
  17. (en) Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. "Opinion: The top 10 operating system stinkers", Computerworld, 9 April 2009: "... after more than 25 years in development, GNU remains incomplete: its kernel, Hurd, has never really made it out of the starting blocks. ... Almost no one has actually been able to use the OS; it's really more a set of ideas than an operating system."
  18. (en) Hillesley, Richard (June 30, 2010), "GNU HURD: Altered visions and lost promise", The H: 3, http://www.h-online.com/open/features/GNU-HURD-Altered-visions-and-lost-promise-1030942.html, "Nearly twenty years later the HURD has still to reach maturity, and has never achieved production quality. ... Some of us are still wishing and hoping for the real deal, a GNU operating system with a GNU kernel." 
  19. (en) Lessig, Lawrence. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World, p. 54. Random House, 2001. ISBN 978-0-375-50578-2. Oor Stallman: "He had mixed all of the ingredients needed for an operating system to function, but he was missing the core."
  20. (en) Status, Free Software Foundation, 2015-05-03, https://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/hurd/status.html, besoek op 2017-04-24 
  21. (en) "1.2 What is Linux?", Debian open book, O'Reilly, 1991-10-05, http://oreilly.com/openbook/debian/book/ch01_02.html, besoek op 2012-09-22 
  22. (en) "What is GNU/Linux?", Ubuntu Installation Guide, Ubuntu (12.4 ed.), Canonical, https://help.ubuntu.com/lts/installation-guide/armhf/ch01s03.html, besoek op 2015-06-22 
  23. (en) Stallman, Richard (1986), "KTH", Philosophy, GNU, Stockholm, Swede: FSF, https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/stallman-kth.html .
  24. (en) Stallman, Richard M.; Gay, Joshua (Desember 2009). Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays Of Richard M. Stallman. www.openisbn.com. ISBN 9781441436856. Besoek op 2016-03-24.
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