Verskil tussen weergawes van "Roma"

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16 429 grepe verwyder ,  2 jaar gelede
geen wysigingsopsomming nie
k (Noord-Masedonië)
Etikette: Selfoonbydrae Wysiging op selfoonwerf
Gypsy scumbags came from Egypt. The only Indo-Aryan language of Europe is the Tchermane.
: ''Hierdie artikel handel oor die etniese groep. Vir die taal, sien [[Romani]].''
{{Etniese groep
| beeld = [[Lêer:Roma flag.svg|300px]]
| onderskrif = Vlag van die Roma
| groep = Roma
| bevolking=ca. 2–12 miljoen<ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.ethnologue.com/language/rmy|format=online|editor-last=Lewis|editor-first=M. Paul|year=2009|title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World|edition=16th|place=Dallas, Texas|publisher=[[Ethnologue]]|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-12977975|work=[[BBC]] News|title=EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty|date=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|title=The Roma|url=http://www.nationalia.info/new/8761/peoples-and-nations-today-the-roma|publisher=Nationalia|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/topic/Rom|title=Rom|work=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref>
| plek={{vlagland|Verenigde State}} ~1 miljoen<ref name=time>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2025316,00.html|first=Kayla|last=Webley|title=Hounded in Europe, Roma in the U.S. Keep a Low Profile|website=Time|date=13 Oktober 2010|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Brasilië}} 800&nbsp;000<ref>{{pt}} {{cite web|url=http://noticias.r7.com/brasil/noticias/falta-de-politicas-publicas-para-ciganos-e-desafio-para-o-governo-20110524.html|title=Falta de políticas públicas para ciganos é desafio para o governo|publisher=R7|year=2011|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Turkye}} 700&nbsp;000–5 miljoen<ref name=immigration>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.osce.org/hcnm/78034?download=true|title=Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Cahn and Professor Elspeth Guild|publisher=[[OVSE]]|date=10 Desember 2008|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref>/~2,8 miljoen<ref>{{tr}} {{cite web|url=http://www.milliyet.com.tr/turkiye-deki-kurtlerin-sayisi-/yasam/magazindetay/06.06.2008/873452/default.htm|title=Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!|date=6 Junie 2008|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{tr}} {{cite web|title=Türkiye’deki Çingene nüfusu tam bilinmiyor. 2, hatta 5 milyon gibi rakamlar dolaşıyor Çingenelerin arasında|url=http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ab-ulkeleriyle-ortak-bir-noktamiz-daha-cingeneler-38700406|newspaper=Hurriyet|date=8 Mei 2005|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Spanje}} 650&nbsp;000–1,5 miljoen<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.gfbv.it/3dossier/sinti-rom/img/n7a.jpg|title=Society for Threatened Peoples|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf|title=The Situation of Roma in Spain|publisher=Open Society Institute|year=2002|format=PDF|accessdate=15 September 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071201172552/http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf|archivedate=1 Desember 2007}}</ref><ref name="Diagnostico Social de la Comunidad Gitana en Espana - CIS">{{es}} {{cite web|url=http://www.msc.es/ssi/familiasInfancia/inclusionSocial/poblacionGitana/docs/diagnosticosocial_autores.pdf|title=Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Roemenië}} 621&nbsp;573–2 miljoen<ref>{{ro}} {{cite web|url=http://www.recensamantromania.ro/rezultate-2/|title=Rezultate|publisher=Institutul Naţional de Statistică|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/ECAEXT/EXTROMA/0,,contentMDK:20333806~menuPK:615999~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:615987,00.html|title=World Bank and the Roma|publisher=[[Wêreldbank]]|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{ro}} {{cite web|format=XLS|url=http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/sR_Tab_8.xls|title=Rezultatele finale ale Recensământului din 2011 - Tab8. Populaţia stabilă după etnie – judeţe, municipii, oraşe, comune|date=5 Julie 2013|accessdate=18 Desember 2013|publisher=National Institute of Statistics}}</ref><ref>{{ro}} {{cite web|url=http://www.gandul.info/stiri/recensamant-2011-doua-treimi-dintre-romi-se-declara-romani-700-000-2-000-000-3-000-000-cati-romi-traiesc-in-romania-8883047|title=RECENSĂMÂNT 2011. Două treimi dintre romi se declară români. 700.000, 2.000.000, 3.000.000 ... câţi romi trăiesc în România?|date=19 Oktober 2011|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Frankryk}} 350&nbsp;000–1,2 miljoen<ref>{{fr}} {{cite web|url=http://www.euractiv.com/section/security/news/situation-of-roma-in-france-at-crisis-proportions-report/|title=Situation of Roma in France at crisis proportions – report|publisher=EurActiv Network|date=7 Desember 2005|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.euractiv.com/en/security/situation-roma-france-crisis-proportions-report/article-150507|title=Report by the European Roma Rights Centre}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.errc.org/db/01/A1/m000001A1.pdf|title=Full Report by the European Roma Rights Centre}}</ref><ref>{{fr}} {{cite web|author=Bernard Gorce|url=http://www.la-croix.com/Actualite/France/Roms-gens-du-voyage-deux-realites-differentes-_NG_-2010-07-22-603910|title=Roms, gens du voyage, deux réalités différentes|publisher=La Croix|date=22 Julie 2010|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Bulgarye}} 325&nbsp;343–800&nbsp;000<ref>{{bg}} {{cite web|url=http://censusresults.nsi.bg/Census/Reports/2/2/R7.aspx|title=Население по местоживеене, възраст и етническа група|work=Bulgarian National Statistical Institute|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite press release|url=http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-249_en.htm|title=Roma Integration – 2014 Commission Assessment: Questions and Answers|publisher=European Commission|location=Brussels|date=4 April 2014|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Hongarye}} 315&nbsp;583–990&nbsp;000<ref>{{hu}} {{cite web|url=http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/nepsz2011/nepsz_sajto_20130328.pdf|title=Hungarian Central Statistical Office Census Data 2011|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite news|author=Michael Kimmelman|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/06/arts/design/06roma.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1|title=In Hungary, Roma Get Art Show, Not a Hug|publisher=[[The New York Times]]|date=6 Februarie 2008|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Griekeland}} 300&nbsp;000–350&nbsp;000<ref>{{en}} {{cite web|title= Greece NGO|newspaper=Geek Helsinki Monitor|place=LV|publisher=Minelres|url=http://www.minelres.lv/reports/greece/greece_NGO.htm|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Verenigde Koninkryk}} 90&nbsp;000–300&nbsp;000/~225&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{en}} {{cite web | url = http://www.ethnologue.com/language/rme | title = [[Ethnologue]] | accessdate = 8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Rusland}} 182&nbsp;766–1,2 miljoen<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/English/4-1.xls|title=National Composition of Population and Citizenship|format=Excel|publisher=Perepis2002|accessdate=16 September 2010}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Serwië}} 147&nbsp;604–800&nbsp;000<ref>{{sr}} {{cite web|publisher=Stat|url=http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/userFiles/file/Aktuelnosti/Prezentacija_Knjiga1.pdf|title=Национална Припадност Припаднос|format=PDF|date=29 November 2012|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1816|title=Skinhead violence targeting Roma in Yugoslavia|work=ERRC|date=15 Mei 1998|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Italië}} 120&nbsp;000–180&nbsp;000<ref>{{it}} {{cite web|url=http://www.21luglio.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Rapporto-annuale-Associazione-21-luglio.pdf|title=Giornata Internazionale dei rom e sinti: presentato il Rapporto Annuale 2014 (PDF)|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Duitsland}} 120&nbsp;000–140&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{de}} {{cite web | url = http://www.berlin-institut.org/online-handbuchdemografie/bevoelkerungsdynamik/regionale-dynamik/roma-in-deutschland.html | publisher = Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung | title = Regionale Dynamik – Roma in Deutschland | accessdate = 8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Slowakye}} 105&nbsp;738–600&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{sk}} {{cite web|publisher=Statistics|format=PDF|url=http://portal.statistics.sk/files/Sekcie/sek_600/Demografia/SODB/Tabulky/Tabulky_AJ_SODB/tab11.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070715152521/http://portal.statistics.sk/files/Sekcie/sek_600/Demografia/SODB/Tabulky/Tabulky_AJ_SODB/tab11.pdf|archivedate=15 Julie 2007|title=Population and Housing Census. Resident population by nationality}}</ref><ref>{{sk}} {{cite web|work=SME|url=http://romovia.sme.sk/c/6947495/na-slovensku-zije-viac-ako-400-tisic-romov-populacny-boom-sa-nepotvrdil.html|title=Na Slovensku žije viac ako 400-tisíc Rómov, populačný boom sa nepotvrdil|date=25 September 2013|accessdate=8 Mei 2016|publisher=SITA}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Noord-Masedonië}} 53&nbsp;879<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{en}} {{cite web |url= http://www.stat.gov.mk/english/glavna_eng.asp?br=18 |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20040621055714/http://www.stat.gov.mk/english/glavna_eng.asp?br=18 |archivedate= 2004-06-21 |title= The 2002-census reported 53,879 Roma and 3,843 'Egyptians' |publisher=Republic of Macedonia, State Statistical Office |accessdate= 17 September 2010}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Swede}} 50&nbsp;000–100&nbsp;000<ref>{{sv}} {{cite web | url = http://minoritet.prod3.imcms.net/1013 | title = Minoritet – Sametingen. Information about minorities in Sweden | publisher = IMCMS | accessdate = 8 Mei 2016 }}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Oekraïne}} 47&nbsp;587–400&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{uk}} {{cite web | url = http://2001.ukrcensus.gov.ua/results/nationality_population/nationality_popul1/select_5/?botton=cens_db&box=5.1W&k_t=00&p=100&rz=1_1&rz_b=2_1%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&n_page=5 | publisher = State statistics committee | title = National composition of population, 2001 census | accessdate = 8 Mei 2016 }}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Tsjeggië}} 40&nbsp;370<ref>{{cz}} {{cite web|url=http://vdb.czso.cz/sldbvo/#!stranka=podle-tematu&tu=30718&th=&v=&vo=H4sIAAAAAAAAAFvzloG1uIhBMCuxLFGvtCQzR88jsTjDN7GAlf3WwcNiCReZGZjcGLhy8hNT3BKTS_KLPBk4SzKKUosz8nNSKgrsHRhAgKecA0gKADF3CQNnaLBrUIBjkKNvcSFDHQMDhhqGCqCiYA__cLCiEgZGvxIGdg9_Fz__EMeCEgY2b38XZ89gIIvLxTHEP8wx2NEFJM4ZHOIY5u_t7-MJ1OIP5IdEBkT5OwU5RgH5IUB9fo4ePq4uEPNYw1yDolzhPstJzEvX88wrSU1PLRJ6tGDJ98Z2CyYGRk8G1rLEnNLUiiIGAYQ6v9LcpNSitjVTZbmnPOhmArq34D8QlDDwAG10C_KFWcoe4ugU6uPtWMLA4eni6hcSEAZ0FYe_k3OQmaGJUwUA4lOtR1sBAAA.&vseuzemi=null&void=|title=Sčítání lidu, domů a bytů|work=czso.cz}}</ref>–300&nbsp;000<ref>{{cz}} {{cite web|url=http://romove.radio.cz/cz/clanek/18884|accessdate=8 Mei 2016|publisher=romove.radio.cz|title=Současná romská komunita v Evropě}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Portugal}} 40&nbsp;000–70&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref name="minorityrights.org">{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://minorityrights.org/wp-content/uploads/old-site-downloads/download-127-RomaGypsies-A-European-Minority.pdf|title=Roma /Gypsies: A European Minority|publisher=Minority Rights Group International|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Kosovo}} 40&nbsp;000<ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url= https://books.google.de/books?id=tQKyAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA142&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false |title= Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies)}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Nederland}} 32&nbsp;000–48&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|Ierland}} 32&nbsp;000–43&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|Switserland}} 25&nbsp;000–35&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|België}} 20&nbsp;000–40&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|Oostenryk}} 20&nbsp;000–30&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|Kroasië}} 16&nbsp;975–40&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{en}} {{cite web |url=http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/census2011/results/htm/e01_01_05/E01_01_05.html |title=POPULATION BY ETHNICITY – DETAILED CLASSIFICATION, 2011 CENSUS |publisher=Croatian Bureau of Statistics |accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Pole}} 15&nbsp;000–60&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url= http://countrystudies.us/poland/32.htm|title= Poland – Gypsies |work= Country studies | accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Moldowa}} 12&nbsp;778–200&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|Bosnië-Herzegowina}} 8&nbsp;864–60&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><br />
{{vlagland|Albanië}} 8&nbsp;301–150&nbsp;000<ref name=immigration/><ref name="minorityrights.org" /><ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://www.instat.gov.al/media/180932/1.1.13.xls|format=XLS|title=Albanian census 2011|website=instat.gov.al|accessdate=7 Desember 2015}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Kanada}} 5&nbsp;255–80&nbsp;000<ref>{{en}} {{cite web|url=http://home.cogeco.ca/~rcctoronto/pdfs/fs08canada.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070614111814/http://home.cogeco.ca/~rcctoronto/pdfs/fs08canada.pdf|archivedate=14 Junie 2007|format=PDF|title=Roma in Canada fact sheet|website=home.cogeco.ca}}</ref><ref>{{en}} {{cite web |url=http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?TABID=2&LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=1118296&GK=0&GRP=0&PID=105396&PRID=0&PTYPE=105277&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2013&THEME=95&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&D1=0&D2=0&D3=0&D4=0&D5=0&D6=0 |title=2011 National Household Survey: Data tables |author=Statistics Canada |accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref><br />
{{vlagland|Slowenië}} 3&nbsp;246<ref name=immigration/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.rtvslo.si/slovenija/romi-kako-iz-labirinta-stereotipov/98728 |title=Romi – kako iz labirinta stereotipov? | publisher=RTV Slovenija | date=5 April 2009 |accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref>
| taal = [[Romani]], tale van inheemse streke
| geloof = [[Christendom]] ([[Rooms-Katolieke Kerk]], [[Oosters-Ortodokse Kerk]], [[Protestantisme]]) • [[Islam]] • Sjaktisme<ref>{{en}} {{cite book | editor-last = Gall | editor-first = Timothy L | title = Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life | volume = 4. Europe | place = Cleveland, OH | publisher = Eastword | year = 1998 | pages = 316, 318}}</ref>
| verwante= Dom, Lom, Domba en ander [[Indo-Ariese tale|Indo-Ariërs]]
}}
 
[[Lêer:Movimiento gitano.jpg|duimnael|links|Die vermoedelike migrasie van Roma na [[Europa]]]]
[[Lêer:Romanis-historical-distribution.png|duimnael|links|Historiese verspreiding van die Roma se subgroepe in Europa]]
[[Lêer:Romani population average estimate.png|duimnael|links|Roma-bevolking volgens Europese lande:
{{legend|#787878|0%}}
{{legend|#58783c|5%}}
{{legend|#377800|10%}}]]
[[Lêer:Romungro.jpg|duimnael|links|Jong [[Hongarye|Hongaarse]] Roma voer 'n tradisionele dans op]]
[[Lêer:FlamencoSevilla.jpg|duimnael|links|Spaanse Roma, die sogenaamde Kalé of Gitanos, het as bekwame musikante en dansers groot invloed op die Andalusiese flamenco-dans uitgeoefen]]
'''Roma''' is 'n sambreelterm vir 'n aantal etnies verwante groepe wat oorspronklik uit [[Indië]] afkomstig is en vanaf die [[14de eeu]] in meerdere migrasiegolwe via [[Suidwes-Asië]] na [[Noord-Afrika]] en [[Europa]], in die moderne tyd ook na die [[Amerikas]] en [[Australië]] gemigreer het.
 
Roma word as etnies-kulturele minderheid op alle vastelande aangetref, alhoewel die meerderheid in Europa en hier veral in Suidoos-Europese en enkele [[Sentraal-Europa|Sentraal-Europese]] lande asook in [[Spanje]] en [[Portugal]] leef. In [[Duits]]sprekende gebiede word na hierdie etniese groepe meestal as "Sinti en Roma" verwys. In Duitsland is die Roma 'n erkende minderheid soos [[Dene]], [[Friese]] en [[Sorbe]].<ref>{{de}} {{cite web|url=http://www.bmi.bund.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Verfassung/Nationale-Minderheiten/nationale-minderheiten_node.html|title=Nationale Min­der­hei­ten|publisher=Bundesministerium des Innern|accessdate=8 Mei 2016}}</ref>
 
Hul gemeenskaplike taal is [[Romani]] of Romanes, met 'n groot verskeidenheid [[dialek]]te.
 
Baie lede van die minderheid word sowel vanweë hulle etniese afkoms asook hulle sosiale situasie gemarginaliseer. So word ook die term ''Sigeuner'' as neerhalend ervaar.
 
== Taal ==

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