in Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie
Die Hekse deur Hans Baldung (houtsnee), 1508

Heksery beteken tradisioneel die gebruik van towerkuns of bonatuurlike kragte om ander te benadeel.[1][2] 'n Praktisyn staan bekend as 'n heks. In Middeleeuse en vroeg-moderne Europa was beskuldigde hekse gewoonlik vroue wat geglo het dat hulle kwaadwillige magie teen hul eie gemeenskap gebruik het, en dikwels met bose wesens gekommunikeer het. Daar is gedink heksery kon gedwarsboom word deur beskermende magie of teen-magie, wat deur volksgenesers verskaf kan word. Vermeende hekse is ook geïntimideer, verban, aangeval of vermoor. Dikwels sou hulle formeel vervolg en gestraf word, indien skuldig bevind of bloot geglo word om skuldig te wees. Europese heksejagte en hekseverhore in die vroeë moderne tydperk het tot tienduisende teregstellings gelei. In sommige streke was baie van diegene wat van heksery beskuldig is, volksgenesers of vroedvroue.[3][4] Europese geloof in heksery het geleidelik afgeneem tydens en na die Verligting.

Bronne[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Alan Macfarlane, Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England, Psychology Press, 1999 (orig. 1970)
  • University of Kansas Publications in Anthropology, No. 5 = John M Janzen and Wyatt MacGaffey: An Anthology of Kongo Religion: Primary Texts from Lower Zaïre. Lawrence, 1974.
  • Studia Instituti Anthropos, Vol. 41 = Anthony J. Gittins: Mende Religion. Steyler Verlag, Nettetal, 1987.
  • Thompson, David W. (2017). Sister Witch: The Life of Moll Dyer. Solstice Publishing. ISBN 978-1973105756.

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. Thomas, Keith (1997). Religion and the Decline of Magic. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 519. ISBN 978-0-297-00220-8. 'At this day', wrote Reginald Scot in 1584, 'it is indifferent to say in the English tongue, "she is a witch" or "she is a wise woman".' Nevertheless, it is possible to isolate that kind of 'witchcraft' which involved the employment (or presumed employment) of some occult means of doing harm to other people in a way which was generally disapproved of. In this sense the belief in witchcraft can be defined as the attribution of misfortune to occult human agency. A witch was a person of either sex (but more often female) who could mysteriously injure other people.
  2. Hutton, Ronald (2017). The Witch: A History of Fear, from Ancient Times to the Present. Yale University Press. p. ix. What is a witch? The standard scholarly definition of one was summed up in 1978 by a leading expert in the anthropology of religion, Rodney Needham, as 'someone who causes harm to others by mystical means'. In stating this, he was self-consciously not providing a personal view of the matter, but summing up an established scholarly consensus [...] When the only historian of the European trials to set them systematically in a global context in recent years, Wolfgang Behringer, undertook his task, he termed witchcraft 'a generic term for all kinds of evil magic and sorcery, as perceived by contemporaries'. Again, in doing so he was self-consciously perpetuating a scholarly norm. That usage has persisted till the present among anthropologists and historians...
  3. Riddle, John M. (1997). Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp. 110–119. ISBN 0674270266.
  4. Ehrenreich, Barbara; English, Deirdre (2010). Witches, Midwives & Nurses: A History of Women Healers (Second uitg.). New York, NY: Feminist Press at CUNY. pp. 31–59. ISBN 978-1558616905.