Nathaniel Hawthorne

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Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne by Brady, 1860-64.jpg
Hawthorne in the 1860s
Gebore
Nathaniel Hathorne

(1804-07-04)4 Julie 1804
Sterf19 Mei 1864 (op 59)
Alma materBowdoin Kollege
Kinders
  • Una Hawthorne
  • Julian Hawthorne
  • Mary Alphonsa
Noemenswaardige werke
    • Twice-Told Tales (1837–1842)
    • The Scarlet Letter (1850)
    • The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
Handtekening
Nathaniel Hawthorne signature.svg

Nathaniel Hawthorne (Engelse fonetiese uitspraak: |ˈ|h|ɔː|θ|ɔr|n; Hathorne; 4 Julie 180419 Mei 1864) was 'n Amerikaanse romansier en kortverhaalskrywer. Sy werke gaan dikwels oor die geskiedenis, moraliteit en geloof.

Hy is gebore in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts, as die seun van Nathaniel Hathorne en Elizabeth Clarke Manning. Sy voorouers sluit John Hathorne, die enigste regter wat betrokke was in die Salem Heksverhore in wat nooit berou oor sy aksies getoon het nie. Hy het in 1821 ingeskryf by Bowdoin Kollege, en is in 1824 verkies na die Phi Beta Kappa,[1] en gradueer in 1825. Hy publiseer sy eerste werk in 1828, te wete die roman getiteld Fanshawe; hy het later probeer om die werk te onderdruk, omrede hy gevoel het dat dit nie gelykstaande was aan die standaarde van sy latere werke nie.[2] Hy het verskeie kortverhale in tydskrifjoernale gepubliseer, wat hy in 1837 gebundel het onder die titel Twice-Told Tales. Die volgende jaar het hy verloof geraak aan Sophia Hawthorne (née Peabody) Hy het gewerk by die Boston Aksynshuis en aangesluit by Custom House

Biografie[wysig | wysig bron]

Portret van Nathaniel Hawthorne deur Charles Osgood, 1841 (Peabody Essex Museum)

Geselekteerde werke[wysig | wysig bron]

Die Midas mite, uit A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys. Illustrasie deur Walter Crane vir die 1893 uitgawe.

Die "definitiewe uitgawe" van Hawthorne se werke[3] is The Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, soos geredigeer deur William Charvat en andere, gepubliseer deur Ohio State University Press in drie-en-twintig volumes tussen 1962 en 1997.[4] Tales and Sketches (1982) was die tweede volume om gepubliseer te word in die Biblioteek van Amerika, Collected Novels (1983) die tiende.[5]

Romans[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Fanshawe (anoniem gepubliseer, 1828)[6]
  • The Scarlet Letter (1850)
  • The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
  • The Blithedale Romance (1852)
  • The Marble Faun: Or, The Romance of Monte Beni (1860) (as Transformation: Or, The Romance of Monte Beni, VK publikasie, dieselfde jaar)
  • The Dolliver Romance (1863) (onvoltooid)
  • Septimius Felton; or, the Elixir of Life (onvoltooid, gepubliseer in die Atlantic Monthly, 1872)
  • Doctor Grimshawe's Secret: A Romance (onvoltooid, met inleiding en notas deur Julian Hawthorne, 1882)

Kortverhaal bundels[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Twice-Told Tales (1837)
  • Grandfather's Chair (1840)
  • Mosses from an Old Manse (1846)
  • A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys (1851)
  • The Snow-Image, and Other Twice-Told Tales (1852)
  • Tanglewood Tales (1853)
  • The Dolliver Romance and Other Pieces (1876)
  • The Great Stone Face and Other Tales of the White Mountains (1889)

Geselekteerde kortverhale[wysig | wysig bron]

  • "The Hollow of the Three Hills" (1830)
  • "Roger Malvin's Burial" (1832)
  • "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" (1832)
  • "The Minister's Black Veil" (1832)
  • "Young Goodman Brown" (1835)
  • "The Gray Champion" (1835)
  • "The White Old Maid" (1835)
  • "Wakefield" (1835)
  • "The Ambitious Guest" (1835)
  • "The Man of Adamant" (1837)
  • "The May-Pole of Merry Mount" (1837)
  • "The Great Carbuncle" (1837)
  • "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment" (1837)
  • "A Virtuoso's Collection" (Mei 1842)
  • "The Birth-Mark" (Maart 1843)
  • "The Celestial Railroad" (1843)
  • "Egotism; or, The Bosom-Serpent" (1843)
  • "Earth's Holocaust" (1844)
  • "Rappaccini's Daughter" (1844)
  • "P.'s Correspondence" (1845)
  • "The Artist of the Beautiful" (1846)
  • "Fire Worship" (1846)
  • "Ethan Brand" (1850)
  • "The Great Stone Face" (1850)
  • "Feathertop" (1852)

Nie-fiksie[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Twenty Days with Julian & Little Bunny (geskryf in 1851 en in 1904 gepubliseer)
  • Our Old Home (1863)
  • Passages from the French and Italian Notebooks (1871)

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

Notas[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. Who Belongs To Phi Beta Kappa Geargiveer 3 Januarie 2012 op Wayback Machine, Phi Beta Kappa webwerf, besoek op 4 Okt 2009
  2. Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1828). Fanshawe. Boston: Marsh & Capen.
  3. Rita K. Gollin, Hawthorne, Nathaniel, American National Biography Aanlyn Feb. 2000
  4. Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1962). The Centenary Edition of the Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 9780814200599.
  5. Biblioteek van Amerika Reeks
  6. Publikasie inligting oor boeke vanaf Redakteursnota aan The Scarlet Letter deur Nathaniel Hawthorne, Page by Page Books, besoek op 11 Junie 2007.

Bronne[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Auerbach, Nina, Woman and the Demon: The Life of a Victorian Myth (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press 1982)
  • Berlant, Lauren. The Anatomy of National Fantasy: Hawthorne, Utopia, and Everyday Life (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press 1991)
  • Cheever, Susan. American Bloomsbury: Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau; Their Lives, Their Loves, Their Work. Detroit: Thorndike Press, 2006. ISBN 0-7862-9521-X.
  • Crews, Frederick. The Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne's Psychological Themes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966; reprinted 1989. ISBN 0-520-06817-3.
  • Hoffman, Daniel G. Form and Fable in American Fiction. University of Virginia Press 1994.
  • Madison, Charles A. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 1800–1974. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1974.
  • McFarland, Philip. Hawthorne in Concord. New York: Grove Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8021-1776-7.
  • Mellow, James R. Nathaniel Hawthorne in His Times. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980. ISBN 0-395-27602-0.
  • Miller, Edwin Haviland. Salem Is My Dwelling Place: A Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991. ISBN 0-87745-332-2.
  • Paglia, Camille. Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson (New York: Vintage 1991)
  • Porte, Joel. The Romance in America: Studies in Cooper, Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, and James. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.
  • Powers, Meredith A. The Heroine in Western Literature: The Archetype and Her Reemergence in Modern Prose (Jefferson, Noord-Carolina en Londen: McFarland 1991)
  • Reynolds, Larry J. "Hawthorne's Labors in Concord". The Cambridge Companion to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Geredigeer deur Richard H. Millington. Cambridge, VK, New York, VSA, en Melbourne, Australië: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 052180745X
  • Schreiner, Samuel A., Jr. The Concord Quartet: Alcott, Emerson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, and the Friendship that Freed the American Mind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2006. ISBN 0-471-64663-6.
  • Splendora, Anthony. "Psyche and Hester, or Apotheosis and Epitome: Natural Grace, La Sagesse Naturale", The Rupkatha Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014), pp. 1–34 http://rupkatha.com/v5n3.php.
  • Van Doren, Mark. Nathaniel Hawthorne: A Critical Biography. 1949; New York: Vintage 1957.
  • Wineapple, Brenda. Hawthorne: A Life. Random House: New York, 2003. ISBN 0-8129-7291-0.

Verdere leeswerk[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Bell, Michael Davitt. Hawthorne and the Historical Romance of New England (Princeton University Press, 2015).
  • Forster, Sophia. "Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and the Emergence of American Literary Realism." Studies in the Novel 48.1 (2016): 43–64. online
  • Greven, David. Gender Protest and Same-Sex Desire in Antebellum American Literature: Margaret Fuller, Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Herman Melville (2015).
  • Hallock, Thomas. "'A'is for Acronym: Teaching Hawthorne in a Performance-Based World." ESQ: A Journal of Nineteenth-Century American Literature and Culture 62#1 (2016): 116–121.

Eksterne skakels[wysig | wysig bron]

Oor Hawthorne
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