Dizzy Gillespie

in Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie
Dizzy Gillespie
Gillespie tydens 'n konsert in Deauville, Normandië, Frankryk, Julie 1991
GeboortenaamJohn Birks Gillespie
Gebore(1917-10-21)21 Oktober 1917
Cheraw, Suid-Carolina, V.S.A.
Sterf6 Januarie 1993 (op 75)
Englewood, New Jersey
  • Jazz
  • Bebop
  • Afro-Kubaanse jazz
  • Musikant
  • Komponis
Jare aktief1935–1993
  • Dee Gee Records
  • Pablo Records
  • RCA Victor Records
  • Savoy Records
  • Verve Records
  • Discovery Records

John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie (/ɡɪˈlɛspi/; 21 Oktober 19176 Januarie 1993) was 'n Amerikaanse trompetspeler van jazzmusiek. Hy was ook 'n komponis en sanger.[1] Hy was 'n virtuoos in sy veld en briljant met improvisasie. Sodoende het hy gebou op die virtuose styl van Roy Eldridge[2] maar met die byvoeging van lae harmonie en ritmiese kompleksiteit van 'n virtuositeit wat voorheen ongehoord was in jazzmusiek. Sy kombinasie van musikaliteit, skouspelagtigheid, intelligensie en vaardigheid het hom een van die voorste proponente van die nuwe musiekstyl wat weldra bekend sou staan as bebop gemaak. Sy beret, sy opgepofte wange en sy lighartige persoonlikheid het een van bebop se mees prominente simbole geword. [1]

Hy het in die 1940's saam met Charlie Parker een van die voorste figure in die ontwikkeling van bebop en moderne jazz geword.[3] Hy het onderrig gegee aan, en verskeie musici beïnvloed, soos o.a. die trompetspelers en jazz-ikone Miles Davis, Jon Faddis, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Morgan,[4] Chuck Mangione,[5] en Johnny Hartman.[6]

Scott Yanow het soos volg oor Gillespie geskryf, "Dizzy Gillespie's contributions to jazz were huge. One of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time, Gillespie was such a complex player that his contemporaries ended up being similar to those of Miles Davis and Fats Navarro instead, and it was not until Jon Faddis's emergence in the 1970s that Dizzy's style was successfully recreated [....] Gillespie is remembered, by both critics and fans alike, as one of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time".[7]

Kunstenaarskap[wysig | wysig bron]

Styl[wysig | wysig bron]

Gillespie is al beskryf as die "sound of surprise". The Rough Guide to Jazz beskryf sy musikale styl (in Engels):

The whole essence of a Gillespie solo was cliff-hanging suspense: the phrases and the angle of the approach were perpetually varied, breakneck runs were followed by pauses, by huge interval leaps, by long, immensely high notes, by slurs and smears and bluesy phrases; he always took listeners by surprise, always shocking them with a new thought. His lightning reflexes and superb ear meant his instrumental execution matched his thoughts in its power and speed. And he was concerned at all times with swing—even taking the most daring liberties with pulse or beat, his phrases never failed to swing. Gillespie's magnificent sense of time and emotional intensity of his playing came from childhood roots. His parents were Methodists, but as a boy he used to sneak off every Sunday to the uninhibited Sanctified Church. He said later, "The Sanctified Church had deep significance for me musically. I first learned the significance of rhythm there and all about how music can transport people spiritually."[8]

In Gillespie se sterfkennis word sy styl soos volg beskryf deur Peter Watrous (in Engels):

In the naturally effervescent Mr. Gillespie, opposites existed. His playing—and he performed constantly until nearly the end of his life—was meteoric, full of virtuosic invention and deadly serious. But with his endlessly funny asides, his huge variety of facial expressions and his natural comic gifts, he was as much a pure entertainer as an accomplished artist.[1]

Wynton Marsalis het Gillespie soos volg opgesom as speler en onderwyser (in Engels):

His playing showcases the importance of intelligence. His rhythmic sophistication was unequaled. He was a master of harmony—and fascinated with studying it. He took in all the music of his youth—from Roy Eldridge to Duke Ellington—and developed a unique style built on complex rhythm and harmony balanced by wit. Gillespie was so quick-minded, he could create an endless flow of ideas at unusually fast tempo. Nobody had ever even considered playing a trumpet that way, let alone had actually tried. All the musicians respected him because, in addition to outplaying everyone, he knew so much and was so generous with that knowledge...[9]
Gillespie met sy trompet in 1988.

Pryse en eerbewyse[wysig | wysig bron]

Standbeeld van Gillespie in sy tuisdorp van Cheraw, Suid-Carolina

In 1989 het Gillespie die Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award ontvang. Die volgende jaar het hy tydens die seremonies wat by die Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts gehou is om die tweehonderdste herdenking van Amerikaanse jazz te vier die Kennedy Center Honors-prys en die American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers Duke Ellington Award ontvang vir 50 jaar se prestasies as komponis en uitvoerder.[10][11]

In 1989 het Gillespie 'n eredoktorsgraad in musiek ontvang van die Berklee College of Music.[12]

In 1993 het hy die Polar musiekprys in Swede gewen.[13] Op 31 Desember 2006 is daar eerbewyse aan hom gebring tydens die program A Jazz New Year's Eve: Freddy Cole & the Dizzy Gillespie All-Star Big Band at The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.[14] In 2014 is Gillespie ingelyf in die New Jersey Hall of Fame.[15]

In populêre kultuur[wysig | wysig bron]

Samuel E. Wright het die karakter van Dizzy Gillespie in die rolprent Bird (1988) wat oor Charlie Parker handel vertolk.[16] Kevin Hanchard het die rol van Gillespie vertolk in die film oor Chet Baker getiteld Born to Be Blue (2015).[17] Charles S. Dutton het Gillespie gespeel in For Love or Country: The Arturo Sandoval Story (2000).

Lys van werke[wysig | wysig bron]

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Watrous, Peter (7 Januarie 1993). "Dizzy Gillespie, Who Sounded Some of Modern Jazz's Earliest Notes, Dies at 75". The New York Times. Besoek op 10 Desember 2018.
  2. Gillespie, Dizzy; Fraser, Al (1979). To Be or Not to Bop. New York: Doubleday.
  3. Palmer, Richard (Januarie 2001). "The Greastest Jazzman of Them All? The Recorded Work of Dizzy Gillespie: An Appraisal". Jazz Journal: 8.
  4. "jazz-music-history.com". jazz-music-history.com. Besoek op 20 Oktober 2010.
  5. "chuckmangione.com". chuckmangione.com. Besoek op 20 Oktober 2010.
  6. "Johnny Hartman Book - The Last Balladeer". johnnyhartmanbook.com. Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 1 Julie 2012. Besoek op 14 November 2015.
  7. Yanow, Scott (2002). All Music Guide to Jazz (4th uitg.). Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-717-X.
  8. Carr, Ian; Fairweather, Digby; Priestley, Brian. The Rough Guide to Jazz. p. 291.
  9. Marsalis, Wynton; Ward, Geoffrey (2008). Moving to Higher Ground: How Jazz Can Change Your Life. New York: Random House.
  10. Watrous, Peter (14 Desember 1990). "A Tribute for Gillespie and the Jazz He Created". The New York Times. Besoek op 10 Desember 2018.
  11. Jazz with Bob Parlocha – Biographies – Dizzy Gillespie Geargiveer 29 Oktober 2006 op Wayback Machine
  12. "Berklee honorary degrees: Justin Timberlake, Missy Elliott, Alex Lacamoire | Boston.com". www.boston.com (in Engels (VSA)). Besoek op 15 April 2020.
  13. "Dizzy Gillespie". Polar Music Prize. Besoek op 10 Desember 2018.
  14. The Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Schedule 2006-07 Geargiveer 13 Januarie 2007 op Wayback Machine, kennedy-center.org; besoek op 25 Mei 2017.
  15. "New Jersey Hall of Fame Class of 2014 Announced". New Jersey Hall of Fame. 31 Julie 2014.
  16. McGee, Marty (8 Junie 2015). Encyclopedia of Motion Picture Sound. ISBN 9781476609706.
  17. "Jazzinematology : BORN TO BE BLUE – a Metafiction of Chet Baker's Life". Jazzuality.com. Besoek op 22 Januarie 2020.

Eksterne skakels[wysig | wysig bron]