Henry David Thoreau

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Henry David Thoreau
Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened.jpg
Henry David Thoreau in 1856
Gebore12 Julie 1817
Concord, Massachusetts
Sterf6 Mei 1862 (op 44)
Concord, Massachusetts
NasionaliteitVlag van Verenigde State van Amerika Verenigde State
Alma materHarvard-kollege
Handtekening
Henry D Thoreau signature.svg

Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862) was 'n Amerikaanse skrywer en filosoof. Hy is veral bekend vir sy boek, Walden, waarin hy peins oor 'n eenvoudige lewe in 'n natuurlike omgewing, asook sy opstel Civil Disobedience ("Burgerlike ongehoorsaamheid"), waarin hy 'n argument stel vir individuele weerstand teen staatsregering ten tye van morele opposisie van 'n onregverdige staat.

Thoreau se boeke, artikels, opstelle, joernale en gedigte tel saam meer as 20 volumes. Tussen sy blywende bydraes was sy skrywes oor natuurgeskiedenis, waarin hy die metodiek en vindings van ekologie voorsien het, en omgewingsgeskiedenis; beide vorms van moderne omgewingskunde.

Hy was sy lewe lank ten gunste van die afskaffing van slawerny en het lesings gegee wat die wette rakende voortvlugtende slawe aangeval het. Hy het die skrywes van Wendell Phillips geprys en ander ondersteuners van die afskaffing van slawerny, soos John Brown, verdedig. Thoreau se filosofie van burgerlike ongehoorsaamheid het die politieke denke en dade van latere figure soos Leo Tolstoi, Mahatma Gandhi en Martin Luther King jr. beïnvloed.

Daar word soms na Thoreau verwys as 'n individualistiese anargis[1][2] en 'n inspirasie vir ander anargiste. Alhoewel sy skrywes die verbetering, liewer as afskaffing van regering aanbeveel,[3] mik die genoemde verbeterings na regeringloosheid: "Die beste regering is een wat geensins regeer nie en wanneer mense daarop voorbereid is, sal dit die soort regering wees wat hulle sal hê".[4]

Werke[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Aulus Persius Flaccus (1840)[5]
  • The Service (1840)
  • A Walk to Wachusett (1842)[6]
  • Paradise (to be) Regained (1843)[7]
  • The Landlord (1843)[8]
  • Sir Walter Raleigh (essay) (1844)
  • Herald of Freedom (essay)(1844)[9]
  • Wendell Phillips Before the Concord Lyceum (1845)[10]
  • Reform and the Reformers (1846–48)
  • Thomas Carlyle and His Works (1847)[11]
  • A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849)[12]
  • Civil Disobedience of On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (1849)[13]
  • An Excursion to Canada (1853)[14]
  • Slavery in Massachusetts (1854)[15]
  • Walden (1854)[16]
  • A Plea for Captain John Brown (1859)[17]
  • Remarks After the Hanging of John Brown (1859)[18]
  • The Last Days of John Brown (1860)
  • Walking (1862)[19]
  • Autumnal Tints (1862)[20]
  • Wild Apples: The History of the Apple Tree (1862)[21]
  • The Fall of the Leaf (1863)[22][23]
  • Excursions (bundel) (1863)[24]
  • Life Without Principle (1863)[25]
  • Night and Moonlight (1863)[26]
  • The Highland Light (1864)[27]
  • The Maine Woods (1864)[28][29] Ten volle geannoteerde uitgawe. Jeffrey S. Cramer, red., Yale University Press, 2009
  • Cape Cod (1865)[30]
  • Letters to Various Persons (1865)[31]
  • A Yankee in Canada, with Anti-Slavery and Reform Papers (1866)[32]
  • Early Spring in Massachusetts (1881)
  • Summer (1884)[33]
  • Winter (1888)[34]
  • Autumn (1892)[35]
  • Miscellanies (1894)[36]
  • Familiar Letters of Henry David Thoreau (1894)[37]
  • Poems of Nature (1895)[27]
  • Some Unpublished Letters of Henry D. and Sophia E. Thoreau (1898)[27]
  • The First and Last Journeys of Thoreau (1905)[38][39]
  • Journal of Henry David Thoreau (1906)[40]
  • The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau geredigeer deur Walter Harding en Carl Bode (Washington Square: New York University Press, 1958)[41]
  • Poets of the English Language (Viking Press, 1950)
  • I Was Made Erect and Lone[42]
  • The Bluebird Carries the Sky on His Back (Stanyan, 1970)[43]
  • The Dispersion of Seeds gepubliseer as Faith in a Seed (Island Press, 1993)[44]
  • The Indian Notebooks (1847-1861) keur deur Richard F. Fleck

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. Johnson, Ellwood. The Goodly Word: The Puritan Influence in America Literature, Clements Publishing, 2005, bl. 138.
  2. Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, edited by Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, Alvin Saunders Johnson, 1937, bl. 12.
  3. "I ask for, not at once no government, but at once a better government" Thoreau, H. D. Resistance to Civil Government
  4. “‘That government is best which governs not at all;’ and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have.”Thoreau, H. D. Resistance to Civil Government
  5. Aulus Persius Flaccus Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  6. A Walk to Wachusett Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  7. Paradise (to be) Regained Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  8. "The United States Democratic Review Volume 0013 Issue 64 (Oct 1843)".
  9. Herald of Freedom Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  10. Wendell Phillips Before the Concord Lyceum Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  11. Thomas Carlyle and His Works Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  12. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers from Project Gutenberg".
  13. Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer; Emerson, Ralph Waldo; Hawthorne, Nathaniel; Thoreau, Henry David (1 Januarie 1849). Aesthetic papers. Boston, : The editor; New York, : G.P. Putnam – via Internet Archive.
  14. A Yankee in Canada Geargiveer 17 Junie 2011 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  15. Slavery in Massachusetts Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  16. Walden Geargiveer 26 September 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  17. A Plea for Captain John Brown Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  18. After the Death of John Brown Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  19. "Walking".
  20. Autumnal Tints Geargiveer 22 Desember 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  21. "Wild Apples, from Project Gutenberg".
  22. "The Walden Woods Project". Walden.org. Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op Junie 20, 2016.
  23. Henry David Thoreau; Bradford Torrey; Franklin Benjamin Sanborn (1863). The Writings of Henry David Thoreau: Excursions, translations, and poems. The Riverside Press, Cambridge. pp. 407–08.
  24. Thoreau, Henry David; Houghton (H. O.) & Company. (1863) bkp CU-BANC; Emerson, Ralph Waldo; Thoreau, Sophia E. (1 Januarie 1863). Excursions. Boston, Ticknor and Fields – via Internet Archive.
  25. "The Atlantic Monthly Volume 0012 Issue 71 (September 1863)".
  26. "The Atlantic Monthly Volume 0012 Issue 72 (November 1863)".
  27. 27,0 27,1 27,2 "Henry David Thoreau, 1817–1862". ebooks.adelaide.edu. The University of Adelaide. Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op Augustus 24, 2017. Besoek op Januarie 1, 2018.
  28. The Maine Woods from The Thoreau Reader
  29. Thoreau, Henry David; Thoreau, Sophia E.; Channing, William Ellery (1 Januarie 1864). The Maine woods. Boston, Ticknor and Fields – via Internet Archive.
  30. Lenat, Richard. "Thoreau's Cape Cod - an annotated edition".
  31. Thoreau, Henry David; Thoreau, Henry David; Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1 Januarie 1865). Letters to various persons. Boston : Ticknor and Fields – via Internet Archive.
  32. Thoreau, Henry David; Thoreau, Henry David; Channing, William Ellery; Emerson, Ralph Waldo; Thoreau, Sophia E. (1 Januarie 1866). A Yankee in Canada, with Anti-slavery and reform papers. Boston, Ticknor and Fields – via Internet Archive.
  33. Thoreau, Henry David; Blake, H. G. O. (Harrison Gray Otis) (1 Januarie 1884). Summer : from the Journal of Henry D. Thoreau. London : T. Fisher Unwin – via Internet Archive.
  34. Thoreau, Henry David; Blake, H. G. O. (1 Januarie 1888). Winter : from the Journal of Henry D. Thoreau. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin – via Internet Archive.
  35. Thoreau, Henry David; Blake, Harrison Gray Otis (1892-12-03). Autumn. From the Journal of Henry D. Thoreau. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin – via Internet Archive.
  36. Miscellanies[dooie skakel] from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  37. Thoreau, Henry David; Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin) (1 Januarie 1894). Familiar letters of Henry David Thoreau. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin – via Internet Archive.
  38. Thoreau, Henry David; Bibliophile Society (Boston, Mass ); Bibliophile Society (Boston, Mass ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin) (1 Januarie 1905). The first and last journeys of Thoreau : lately discovered among his unpublished journals and manuscripts. Boston : Printed exclusively for members of the Bibliophile Society – via Internet Archive.
  39. Thoreau, Henry David; Bibliophile Society (Boston, Mass ); Bibliophile Society (Boston, Mass ); Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin) (1 Januarie 1905). The first and last journeys of Thoreau : lately discovered among his unpublished journals and manuscripts. Boston : Printed exclusively for members of the Bibliophile Society – via Internet Archive.
  40. The Journal of Henry D. Thoreau Geargiveer 5 Mei 2010 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  41. The Correspondence of Thoreau Geargiveer 17 Junie 2011 op Wayback Machine from the Writings of Henry David Thoreau: The Digital Collection
  42. "I Was Made Erect and Lone". 2018-12-03.
  43. Rastogi, Gaurav (2015-05-11). "The bluebird carries the sky on his back". Medium (in Engels). Besoek op 2020-01-15.
  44. Thoreau, Henry David (April 1996). Faith in a Seed: The Dispersion of Seeds and Other Late Natural History Writings. Island Press. ISBN 978-1559631822. Besoek op 29 Januarie 2018.