Ludwig Boltzmann

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Ludwig Boltzmann
Boltzmann2.jpg
Ludwig Boltzmann
Gebore
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann

(1844-02-20)20 Februarie 1844
Sterf5 September 1906 (op 62)
NasionaliteitOostenryk
Alma materUniversiteit van Wene
Bekend vir
  • Boltzmann konstante
  • Boltzmann-vergelyking
  • Boltzmann distribusie
  • Gedetailleerde balans
  • H-stelling
  • Maxwell–Boltzmann distribusie
  • Stefan–Boltzmann konstante
  • Stefan–Boltzmann wet
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann statistieke
  • Boltzmann faktor
  • Epistemologiese idealisme
Handtekening
Ludwig Boltzmann signature.svg

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Duitse fonetiese uitspraak: |ˈluːtvɪç ˈbɔlt͡sman; 20 Februarie 18445 September 1906) was 'n Oostenrykse fisikus en filosoof. Sy grootste prestasie was die ontwikkeling van statistiese meganika, wat 'n verduideliking bied van, en voorspel hoe, die eienskappe van atome (soos bv. atoommassa, elektriese lading en struktuur) die fisiese eienskappe van materie bepaal (soos bv. die viskositeit, termiese geleidingsvermoë en diffusie of verspreiding daarvan). Boltzmann het die woord Ergodisiteit uitgedink terwyl hy besig was om aan 'n probleem in statistiese meganika te werk.

Biografie[wysig | wysig bron]

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

Verdere leeswerk[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Roman Sexl & John Blackmore (eds.), "Ludwig Boltzmann – Ausgewahlte Abhandlungen", (Ludwig Boltzmann Gesamtausgabe, Band 8), Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1982.
  • John Blackmore (red.), "Ludwig Boltzmann – His Later Life and Philosophy, 1900–1906, Book One: A Documentary History", Kluwer, 1995. ISBN 978-0-7923-3231-2
  • John Blackmore, "Ludwig Boltzmann – His Later Life and Philosophy, 1900–1906, Book Two: The Philosopher", Kluwer, Dordrecht, Nederland 1995. ISBN 978-0-7923-3464-4
  • John Blackmore (red.), "Ludwig Boltzmann – Troubled Genius as Philosopher", in Synthese, Volume 119, Nos. 1 & 2, 1999, pp. 1–232.
  • Blundell, Stephen; Blundell, Katherine M. (2006). Concepts in Thermal Physics. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-19-856769-1.
  • Boltzmann, Ludwig Boltzmann – Leben und Briefe, red., Walter Hoeflechner, Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt. Graz, Oesterreich, 1994
  • Brush, Stephen G. (red. & vertaler), Boltzmann, Lectures on Gas Theory, Berkeley, Kalifornië: U. of California Press, 1964
  • Brush, Stephen G. (red.), Kinetic Theory, New York: Pergamon Press, 1965
  • Brush, Stephen G. (1970). "Boltzmann". In Charles Coulston Gillispie (red.). Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-16962-0.
  • Brush, Stephen G. (1986). The Kind of Motion We Call Heat: A History of the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Amsterdam: North-Holland. ISBN 978-0-7204-0370-1.
  • Cercignani, Carlo (1998). Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198501541.
  • Darrigol, Olivier (2018). Atoms, Mechanics, and Probability: Ludwig Boltzmann's Statistico-Mechanical. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-881617-1.
  • Paul Ehrenfest & Ehrenfest, T. (1911) "Begriffliche Grundlagen der statistischen Auffassung in der Mechanik", in Encyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluß ihrer Anwendungen Band IV, 2. Teil ( F. Klein and C. Müller (reds.). Leipzig: Teubner, pp. 3–90. Vertaal as The Conceptual Foundations of the Statistical Approach in Mechanics. New York: Cornell University Press, 1959. ISBN 0-486-49504-3
  • Everdell, William R (1988). “The Problem of Continuity and the Origins of Modernism: 1870–1913”. History of European Ideas 9 (5): 531–552. doi:10.1016/0191-6599(88)90001-0.
  • Everdell, William R (1997). The First Moderns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Gibbs, Josiah Willard (1902). Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, developed with especial reference to the rational foundation of thermodynamics. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Johnson, Eric (2018). Anxiety and the Equation: Understanding Boltzmann's Entropy. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-03861-4.
  • Klein, Martin J. (1973). "The Development of Boltzmann's Statistical Ideas". In E.G.D. Cohen; W. Thirring (reds.). The Boltzmann Equation: Theory and Applications. Acta physica Austriaca Suppl. 10. Wien: Springer. pp. 53–106. ISBN 978-0-387-81137-6.
  • Lindley, David (2001). Boltzmann's Atom: The Great Debate That Launched A Revolution In Physics. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-85186-0.
  • Lotka, A. J. (1922). “Contribution to the Energetics of Evolution”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 8 (6): 147–51. doi:10.1073/pnas.8.6.147.
  • Meyer, Stefan (1904). Festschrift Ludwig Boltzmann gewidmet zum sechzigsten Geburtstage 20. Februar 1904 (in Duits). J. A. Barth.
  • Planck, Max (1914). The Theory of Heat Radiation. P. Blakiston Son & Co. Engelse vertaling deur Morton Masius van die 2de uitgawe van Waermestrahlung. Heruitgereik deur Dover (1959) & (1991). ISBN 0-486-66811-8
  • Tolman, Richard C. (1938). The Principles of Statistical Mechanics. Oxford University Press. Heruitgereik: Dover (1979). ISBN 0-486-63896-0

Eksterne skakels[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Ruth Lewin Sime, Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics Hoofstuk Een: Girlhood in Vienna gee Lise Meitner se relaas oor Boltzmann se onderrig en loopbaan.
  • Eftekhari, Ali, "Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906)." Bespreek Boltzmann se filosofiese opinies, met verskeie aanhalings.
  • Rajasekar, S.; Athavan, N. (2006-09-07). "Ludwig Edward Boltzmann".