Lys van naaste sterre

in Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie
Jump to navigation Jump to search
’n Geanimeerde 3D-kaart van die naaste sterre wat om die Son gekonsentreerd is. 'n 3D-bril (rooi en groen) word aanbeveel om dit die beste te sien.

Hierdie lys van die naaste sterre bevat al die sterre en bruindwergsterre binne ’n afstand van 5 parsek (16,3 ligjare) van die Sonnestelsel af, gerangskik volgens toenemende afstand.

Morgan-Keenan-Kellman-spektraaltipes van hoofreekssterre.

Benewens die Sonnestelsel is daar nog 53 stelsels van sterre wat sover bekend binne dié afstand lê. Dié stelsels bevat altesaam 59 sterre, waarvan 50 rooidwergsterre is; hulle is verreweg die volopste sterre in die Melkweg. Die 9 ander sterre is helderder. Benewens dié "ware" sterre, is daar ook 11 bruindwerge en 4 witdwerge.

Ondanks dié 74 voorwerpe se relatiewe nabyheid aan die Aarde, het net 9 van hulle ’n skynbare magnitude van helderder as 6,5, die minimum helderheid van sterre wat met die blote oog gesien kan word. Benenewens die Son is daar net drie sterre van die eerste magnitude: Alpha Centauri, Sirius en Procyon.

Al dié voorwerpe lê in die Lokale Borrel, ’n streek in die Orion-Cygnus-arm van die Melkweg.

Lys[wysig | wysig bron]

Sterre op die lys hier onder wat met die blote oog van die Aarde af gesien kan word, se skynbare magnitude het ’n ligblou agtergrond. Die sterklas van die sterre en bruindwerge word volgens die kleur van hul spektraaltipe aangegee (die kleure is afgelei van konvensionele name vir die spektraaltipes en is nie die sterre se presiese sigbare kleur nie). Bruindwerge se name het ’n bruin agtergrond. Baie van hulle is nie volgens hul sigbareligspektrum (mV) geklassifiseer nie, maar volgens hul infrarooimagnitude (mJ). Witdwerge het 'n wit agtergrond. Van die parallakse en afstande is voorlopige waardes.[1]

# Afstand[2]
(ligjare)
Naam Sterklas Skynbare magnitude Absolute magnitude Epog J2000.0 Parallaks[1][3]
(mbs)
Ontdek Notas
Stelsel Ster Ster # RK[1] Deklinasie[1]
0 Sonnestelsel Son G2V[1] -26,74[1] 4,85[1] Het 8 planete
1 4,2441 ± 0,0011 Alpha Centauri
(Rigil Kentaurus)
Proxima Centauri (V645 Centauri) 1 M5.5Ve 11,09[1] 15,53[1] 14h 29m 43,0s -62° 40′ 46″ 768,50 ± 0,20[4] 1915 Opvlamster; 2 bevestigde planete[5] en dalk 'n 3de[6]
4,3650 ± 0,0068 α Centauri A (HD 128620) 2 G2V[1] 0,01[1] 4,38[1] 14h 39m 36,5s -60° 50′ 02″ 747,23 ± 1,17[7][8][9] 150
α Centauri B (HD 128621) 2 K1V[1] 1,34[1] 5,71[1] 14h 39m 35,1s -60° 50′ 14″ 1689 Vermoedelik 1 planeet
2 5,9577 ± 0,0032 Barnard se Ster (BD+04°3561a) 4 M4.0Ve 9,53[1] 13,22[1] 17h 57m 48,5s +04° 41′ 36″ 547,45 ± 0,29[4] 1916 Opvlamster, grootste bekende eiebeweging;[10] 1 bekende planeet[11]
3 6,5029 ± 0,0011 Luhman 16
(WISE 1049-5319)
Luhman 16A 5 L8 10,7 J 10h 49m 15,57s -53° 19′ 06″ 501,557 ± 0,082[12] 2013 Naaste bekende bruindwerg
Luhman 16B 5 T1±2
4 7,26 ± 0,13[13] WISE 0855-0714 7 Y2 25 J 08h 55m 10.83s -07° 14′ 42.5″ 449 ± 8[14] 2014
5 7,856 ± 0,031 Wolf 359 (CN Leonis) 8 M6.0V[1] 13,44[1] 16,55[1] 10h 56m 29,2s +07° 00′ 53″ 415,16 ± 1,62[15] 1919 Opvlamster; 2 bekende planete[11]
6 8,307 ± 0,014 Lalande 21185 (BD+36°2147) 9 M2.0V[1] 7,47[1] 10,44[1] 11h 03m 20,2s +35° 58′ 12″ 392,64 ± 0,67[16] 1801 1 bekende planeet[11]
7 8,659 ± 0,010 Sirius
(α Canis Majoris)
Sirius A 10 A1V[1] -1,46[1] 1,42[1] 06h 45m 08,9s -16° 42′ 58″ 376,68 ± 0,45[4] 1870 v.C. Helderste ster in die lug; B is 'n witdwerg
Sirius B 10 DA2[1] 8,44[1] 11,34[1] 1844
8 8,791 ± 0,012 Luyten 726-8 Luyten 726-8 A (BL Ceti) 12 M5.5Ve 12,54[1] 15,40[1] 01h 39m 01,3s -17° 57′ 01″ 371,0 ± 0,5[4] 1949 Opvlamster
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Ceti) 12 M6.0Ve 12,99[1] 15,85[1]
9 9,7035 ± 0,0019 Ross 154 (V1216 Sagittarii) 14 M3.5Ve 10,43[1] 13,07[1] 18h 49m 49,4s -23° 50′ 10″ 336,123 ± 0,064[4] 1925 Opvlamster
10 10,2903 ± 0,0041 Ross 248 (HH Andromedae) 15 M5.5Ve 12,29[1] 14,79[1] 23h 41m 54,7s +44° 10′ 30″ 316,96 ± 0,13[4] 1925 Opvlamster
11 10,446 ± 0,016 Epsilon Eridani (BD-09°697) 16 K2V[1] 3,73[1] 6,19[1] 03h 32m 55,8s -09° 27′ 30″ 312,22 ± 0,47[4] 150 3 sirkumstellêre skywe, vermoedelik 2 planete[17]
12 10,7211 ± 0,0016 Lacaille 9352 (CD-36°15693) 17 M0.5Ve 7,34[1] 9,75[1] 23h 05m 52,0s -35° 51′ 11″ 304,219 ± 0,045[4] 1753 2 planete, dalk 'n 3de, in die bewoonbare sone[18]
13 11,0074 ± 0,0026 Ross 128 (FI Virginis) 18 M4.0Vn 11,13[1] 13,51[1] 11h 47m 44,4s +00° 48′ 16″ 296,307 ± 0,070[4] 1925 Opvlamster, 1 planeet[19]
14 11,109 ± 0,034 EZ Aquarii
(Gliese 866, Luyten 789-6)
EZ Aquarii A 19 M5.0Ve 13,33[1] 15,64[1] 22h 38m 33,4s -15° 18′ 07″ 293,60 ± 0,9[20] 1937 A en B is opvlamsterre
EZ Aquarii B 19 M? 13,27[1] 15,58[1] 1937
EZ Aquarii C 19 M? 14,03[1] 16,34[1] 1959
15 11,4008 ± 0,0012 61 Cygni 61 Cygni A (BD+38°4343) 22 K5.0V[1] 5,21[1] 7,49[1] 21h 06m 53,9s +38° 44′ 58″ 286,08 ± 0,03[4] 1712 B is 'n opvlamster en die helderste rooidwerg aan die naghemel; 1ste naas die Son waarvan die afstand gemeet is[21]
61 Cygni B (BD+38°4344) 22 K7.0V[1] 6,03[1] 8,31[1] 21h 06m 55,3s +38° 44′ 31″ 1753
16 11,402 ± 0,032 Procyon
(α Canis Minoris)
Procyon A 24 F5V–IV[1] 0,38[1] 2,66[1] 07h 39m 18,1s +05° 13′ 30″ 286,05 ± 0,81[7][8][9] 150 Opvlamsterre; B het 2 bekende planete[11]
Procyon B 24 DQZ[1] 10,70[1] 12,98[1] 1844
17 11,4880 ± 0,0012 Struve 2398
(Gliese 725, BD+59°1915)
Struve 2398 A (HD 173739) 26 M3.0V[1] 8,90[1] 11,16[1] 18h 42m 46,7s +59° 37′ 49″ 283,91 ± 0,03[4] 1835 Opvlamster; dalk 2 planete[22]
Struve 2398 B (HD 173740) 26 M3.5V[1] 9,69[1] 11,95[1] 18h 42m 46,9s +59° 37′ 37″ 1835 Opvlamster
18 11,6182 ± 0,0008 Groombridge 34
(Gliese 15)
Groombridge 34 A (GX Andromedae) 28 M1.5V[1] 8,08[1] 10,32[1] 0h 18m 22,9s +44° 01′ 23″ 280,73 ± 0,02[4] 1813 Opvlamster; dalk 2 planete[23]
Groombridge 34 B (GQ Andromedae) 28 M3.5V[1] 11,06[1] 13,30[1] 1813 Opvlamster
19 11,6780 ± 0,0056 DX Cancri (G 51-15) 30 M6.5Ve 14,78[1] 16,98[1] 08h 29m 49,5s +26° 46′ 37″ 279,29 ± 0,13[4] 1972 Opvlamster
20 11,753 ± 0,022 Tau Ceti (BD-16°295) 31 G8Vp[1] 3,49[1] 5,68[1] 01h 44m 04,1s -15° 56′ 15″ 277,52 ± 0,52[4] 1603 1 puinskyf; 4 planete, dalk nog 4
21 11,869 ± 0,011 Epsilon Indi
(CPD-57°10015)
Epsilon Indi A 32 K5Ve[1] 4,69[1] 6,89[1] 22h 03m 21,7s -56° 47′ 10″ 274,80 ± 0,25[4] 1603 1 planeet[24]
Epsilon Indi Ba 32 T1.0V 12,3 J[25] 22h 04m 10,5s -56° 46′ 58″ 2003
Epsilon Indi Bb 32 T6.0V 13,2 J[25] 2003
22 11,9803 ± 0,0029 GJ 1061 (LHS 1565) 35 M5.5V[1] 13,09[1] 15,26[1] 03h 35m 59,7s -44° 30′ 45″ 274,80 ± 0,25[4] 1995 3 bekende planete[26][27][28]
23 12,1084 ± 0,0035 YZ Ceti (LHS 138) 36 M4.5V[1] 12,02[1] 14,17[1] 01h 12m 30,6s -16° 59′ 56″ 269,363 ± 0,078[4] 1961 Opvlamster; 3 planete[29] en dalk nog 1
24 12,199 ± 0,036 Luyten se Ster (BD+05°1668) 37 M3.5Vn 9,86[1] 11,97[1] 07h 27m 24,5s +05° 13′ 33″ 267,36 ± 0,79[30] 1935 2 planete[31] en dalk nog 2[32]
25 12,496 ± 0,013 Teegarden se Ster (SO025300.5+165258) 38 M6.5V 15,14[1] 17,22[1] 02h 53m 00,9s +16° 52′ 53″ 261,01 ± 0,27[4] 2003 2 bekende planete[33][34]
26 12,8294 ± 0,0013 Kapteyn se Ster (CD-45°1841) 39 M1.5V[1] 8,84[1] 10,87[1] 05h 11m 40,6s -45° 01′ 06″ 254,226 ± 0,026[4] 1898 2 bekende planete[35]
27 12,9515 ± 0,0029 Lacaille 8760 (AX Microscopii) 40 M0.0V[1] 6,67[1] 8,69[1] 21h 17m 15,3s -38° 52′ 03″ 251,829 ± 0,056[4] 1753 Opvlamster; helderste M-dwerg in naglug
28 13,050 ± 0,008 SCR 1845-6357 SCR 1845-6357 A 41 M8.5V[1] 17,39 19,41 18h 45m 05,3s -63° 57′ 48″ 249,91 ± 0,16[4] 2004 [28]
SCR 1845-6357 B 41 T6[36] 13.3 J[25] 18h 45m 02,6s -63° 57′ 52″ 2006
29 13,0724 ± 0,0052 Kruger 60
(BD+56°2783)
Kruger 60 A 43 M3.0V[1] 9,79[1] 11,76[1] 22h 27m 59,5s +57° 41′ 45″ 249,5 ± 0,1[4] 1880 B is 'n opvlamster
Kruger 60 B (DO Cephei) 43 M4.0V[1] 11,41[1] 13,38[1] 1890?
30 13,1932 ± 0,0066 DEN 1048-3956 45 M8.5V[1] 17,39[1] 19,37[1] 10h 48m 14,7s -39° 56′ 06″ 247,22 ± 0,12[4] 2001 [37][38]
31 13,424 ± 0,049 Ross 614
(V577 Monocerotis, Gliese 234)
Ross 614A (LHS 1849) 46 M4.5V[1] 11,15[1] 13,09[1] 06h 29m 23,4s -02° 48′ 50″ 242,97 ± 0,88[4] 1927 Opvlamster
Ross 614B (LHS 1850) 46 M5.5V 14,23[1] 16,17[1] 1936
32 13,43 ± 0,13 UGPS 0722-05 48 T9[1] 16,52 J 07h 22m 27,3s –05° 40′ 30″ 242,8 ± 2,4[39] 2010
33 14,0458 ± 0,0038 Wolf 1061 (Gliese 628, BD-12°4523) 49 M3.0V[1] 10,07[1] 11,93[1] 16h 30m 18,1s -12° 39′ 45″ 232,210 ± 0,063[4] 1919 3 planete[40]
34 14,05 ± 0,26 Wolf 424
(FL Virginis, LHS 333, Gliese 473)
Wolf 424 A 50 M5.5Ve 13,18[1] 14,97[1] 12h 33m 17,2s +09° 01′ 15″ 232,2 ± 4,3[41] 1919 Opvlamsterre
Wolf 424 B 50 M7Ve 13,17[1] 14,96[1] 1941
35 14,0744 ± 0,0023 Van Maanen se Ster (Gliese 35, LHS 7) 52 DZ7[1] 12,38[1] 14,21[1] 00h 49m 09,9s +05° 23′ 19″ 231,737 ± 0,038[4] 1896 Vrydrywend; dalk puinskyf en 1 planeet
36 14,1725 ± 0,0037 Gliese 1 (CD-37°15492) 53 M1.5V[1] 8,55[1] 10,35[1] 00h 05m 24,4s -37° 21′ 27″ 230,133 ± 0,060[4] 1884
37 14,30 ± 0,56 WISE 1639-6847 54 Y0,5 20,57 J 22,10 J 16h 39m 40.9s -68° 47′ 46″ 228,1 ± 8,9[42] 2012 [nota 1]
38 14,509(187) TZ Arietis (Gliese 83.1, Luyten 1159-16) 55 M4.5V[1] 12,27[1] 14,03[1] 02h 00m 13,2s +13° 03′ 08″ 219,801 ± 0,049[4] 1955? Opvlamster; 3 bekende planete[11]
39 14,809(107) Gliese 674 (LHS 449) 56 M3.0V[1] 9,38[1] 11,09[1] 17h 28m 39,9s -46° 53′ 43″ 219,781 ± 0,032[4] 1930 1 bekende planeet[43]
40 14,793(55) Gliese 687 (LHS 450, BD+68°946) 57 M3.0V[1] 9,17[1] 10,89[1] 17h 36m 25,9s +68° 20′ 21″ 219,781 ± 0,032[4] 1862 Dalk opvlamster; 2 planete[44][45]
41 14,805(242) LHS 292 (LP 731-58) 58 M6.5V[1] 15,60[1] 17,32[1] 10h 48m 12,6s -11° 20′ 14″ 219,12 ± 0,16[4] 1960's? Opvlamster
42 15,1182 ± 0,0023 LP 145-141 (WD 1142-645, Gliese 440) 59 DQ6[1] 11,50 13,18 11h 45m 42.9s -64° 50′ 29″ 215,737 ± 0,032[4] 1917
43 15,2090 ± 0,0050 G 208-44
G 208-45
(GJ 1245)
G 208-44 A (V1581 Cyg) 60 M5,5V[1] 13,46 15,17 19h 53m 54.2s +44° 24′ 55″ 214,45 ± 0,07[4] 1967 Opvlamsterre
G 208-45 M6,0V[1] 14,01 15,72 19h 53m 55.2s +44° 24′ 56″ 1967
G 208-44 B M5,5 16,75 18,46 19h 53m 54.2s +44° 24′ 55″ 1984
44 15,342(141) Gliese 876 (Ross 780) 63 M3.5V[1] 10,17[1] 11,81[1] 22h 53m 16,7s -14° 15′ 49″ 213,867 ± 0,076[4] 1928 4 planete[46] en dalk nog 2 (betwis)
45 15,610(204) LHS 288 (Luyten 143-23) 64 M5.5V[1] 13,90[1] 15,51[1] 10h 44m 21,2s -61° 12′ 36″ 206,817 ± 0,074[4] 1955? [28]
46 15,313(259) GJ 1002 65 M5.5V[1] 13,76[1] 15,40[1] 00h 06m 43,8s -07° 32′ 22″ 206,21 ± 0,13[4] 1964
47 15,848(52) Groombridge 1618 (Gliese 380) 66 K7.0V[1] 6,59[1] 8,16[1] 10h 11m 22,1s +49° 27′ 15″ 205,392 ± 0,034[4] 1838 Opvlamster; helderste enkele rooidwerg in naglug; dalk 1 puinskyf en 1 planeet
48 16,197(313) DEN 0255-4700 67 L7.5V[1] 22,92[1] 24,44[1] 02h 55m 03,7s -47° 00′ 52″ 205,33 ± 0,25[4] 1999 [38]
49 15,832(83) Gliese 412 Gliese 412 A 68 M1.0V[1] 8,77[1] 10,34[1] 11h 05m 28,6s +43° 31′ 36″ 204,06 ± 0,17[4] 1850's?
Gliese 412 B (WX Ursae Majoris) 68 M5.5V[1] 14,48[1] 16,05[1] 11h 05m 30,4s +43° 31′ 18″ 1850's? Opvlamster
50 16,085(105) Gliese 832 70 M1.5V[1] 8,66[1] 10,20[1] 21h 33m 34,0s -49° 00′ 32″ 201,407 ± 0,043[4] 1910's? Dalk opvlamster; 2 planete[47][48]
51 15,942(218) AD Leonis 71 M3.0V[1] 9,32[1] 10,87[1] 10h 19m 36,4s +19° 52′ 10″ 201,368 ± 0,068[4] 1850's? Opvlamster; dalk 1 planeet (betwis)[11] in 2020)[49]
52 16,26 ± 0,76 GJ 1005 GJ 1005 A 72 M4V[50] 11,48[50] 00h 15m 28.11s -16° 08′ 01.6″ 200,5 ± 9,4[50] 1941 [nota 1]
GJ 1005 B M7V ? ? 1984
53 16,3 ± 4,2 WISE J0521+1025 74 T7,5[51] 15,26 J 16,95 J 05h 21m 26.3s +10° 25′ 28″ 217,5 ± 40 2012 [nota 2]
# Afstand[2]
(ligjare)
Stelsel Ster Ster # Sterklas Skynbare magnitude Absolute magnitude RK[1] Deklinasie[1] Parallaks[1][3]
(mbs)
Ontdek Notas
Naam Epog J2000.0

Die toekoms[wysig | wysig bron]

Ross 248, tans op ’n afstand van 10,3 ligjare, het ’n radiale snelheid van -81 km/s. In sowat 31 000 jaar kan dit vir verskeie millennia die naaste ster aan die Son wees met ’n afstand van 3,02 ligjare oor 36 000 jaar.[52] Gliese 445, tans 17,6 ligjare van die Son af, het ’n radiale snelheid van -119 km/s. In sowat 40 000 years sal dit vir ’n paar duisend jaar die naaste ster wees.[52]

Notas[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Dalk nie binne 5 parsek van die Son af nie.
  2. Afstand uiters onseker.

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. 1,000 1,001 1,002 1,003 1,004 1,005 1,006 1,007 1,008 1,009 1,010 1,011 1,012 1,013 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,017 1,018 1,019 1,020 1,021 1,022 1,023 1,024 1,025 1,026 1,027 1,028 1,029 1,030 1,031 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,037 1,038 1,039 1,040 1,041 1,042 1,043 1,044 1,045 1,046 1,047 1,048 1,049 1,050 1,051 1,052 1,053 1,054 1,055 1,056 1,057 1,058 1,059 1,060 1,061 1,062 1,063 1,064 1,065 1,066 1,067 1,068 1,069 1,070 1,071 1,072 1,073 1,074 1,075 1,076 1,077 1,078 1,079 1,080 1,081 1,082 1,083 1,084 1,085 1,086 1,087 1,088 1,089 1,090 1,091 1,092 1,093 1,094 1,095 1,096 1,097 1,098 1,099 1,100 1,101 1,102 1,103 1,104 1,105 1,106 1,107 1,108 1,109 1,110 1,111 1,112 1,113 1,114 1,115 1,116 1,117 1,118 1,119 1,120 1,121 1,122 1,123 1,124 1,125 1,126 1,127 1,128 1,129 1,130 1,131 1,132 1,133 1,134 1,135 1,136 1,137 1,138 1,139 1,140 1,141 1,142 1,143 1,144 1,145 1,146 1,147 1,148 1,149 1,150 1,151 1,152 1,153 1,154 1,155 1,156 1,157 1,158 1,159 1,160 1,161 1,162 1,163 1,164 1,165 1,166 1,167 1,168 1,169 1,170 1,171 Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, Georgia State University (2007-09-17). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". Research Consortium on Nearby Stars. Besoek op 2007-11-06.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Van parallaks.
  3. 3,0 3,1 Parallaxes given by RECONS are a weighted mean of values in the sources given, as well as measurements by the RECONS program.
  4. 4,00 4,01 4,02 4,03 4,04 4,05 4,06 4,07 4,08 4,09 4,10 4,11 4,12 4,13 4,14 4,15 4,16 4,17 4,18 4,19 4,20 4,21 4,22 4,23 4,24 4,25 4,26 4,27 4,28 4,29 4,30 4,31 4,32 4,33 4,34 4,35 4,36 4,37 4,38 4,39 4,40 Gaia Collaboration. "Gaia DR2". gea.esac.esa.int. Besoek op 10 Mei 2018.
  5. Drake, Nadia (12 April 2019). "A new super-Earth may orbit the star next door". National Geographic. Besoek op 21 April 2019. Video of discovery being discussed (accidentally announced?)
  6. Suárez Mascareño, A.; Faria, J. P.; et al. (2020). "Revisiting Proxima with ESPRESSO". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 639: A77. arXiv:2005.12114. Bibcode:2020A&A...639A..77S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037745. ISSN 0004-6361.
  7. 7,0 7,1 General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Hipparcos Catalogue.
  9. 9,0 9,1 Söderhjelm, Staffan (1999). "Visual binary orbits and masses POST HIPPARCOS". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 341: 121. Bibcode:1999A&A...341..121S.
  10. Barnard, E. E. (1916). "A small star with large proper motion". Astronomical Journal. 29 (695): 181. Bibcode:1916AJ.....29..181B. doi:10.1086/104156.
  11. 11,0 11,1 11,2 11,3 11,4 11,5 Tuomi, M.; el, al. (2019-06-11). "Frequency of planets orbiting M dwarfs in the Solar neighbourhood" (in en). [astro-ph.EP]. 
  12. Lazorenko, P. F.; Sahlmann, J. (23 Augustus 2018). "Updated astrometry and masses of the LUH 16 brown dwarf binary". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 618: A111. arXiv:1808.07835. Bibcode:2018A&A...618A.111L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833626. S2CID 119540451.
  13. Luhman, K. L. (April 21, 2014). "Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 786 (2): L18. arXiv:1404.6501. Bibcode:2014ApJ...786L..18L. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L18. S2CID 119102654.
  14. Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L. (6 September 2016). "The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 78. arXiv:1605.06655. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...78L. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/78. ISSN 1538-3881. S2CID 118577918.
  15. Davison, Cassy L.; et al. (19 Februarie 2015). "A 3D Search for Companions to 12 Nearby M-Dwarfs". The Astronomical Journal. 149 (3): 106. arXiv:1501.05012. Bibcode:2015AJ....149..106D. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/3/106. ISSN 1538-3881. S2CID 9719725.
  16. van Leeuwen, F. (13 August 2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 18759600.
  17. Janson, M. et al. (September 2008), "A comprehensive examination of the ε Eridani system. Verification of a 4 micron narrow-band high-contrast imaging approach for planet searches", Astronomy and Astrophysics 488 (2): 771–780, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809984, Bibcode2008A&A...488..771J 
  18. Jeffers, S. V.; Dreizler, S.; et al. (26 Junie 2020). "A multiplanet system of super-Earths orbiting the brightest red dwarf star GJ 887". Science. 368 (6498): 1477–1481. arXiv:2006.16372. Bibcode:2020Sci...368.1477J. doi:10.1126/science.aaz0795. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 32587019. S2CID 220075207.
  19. ESO. "A temperate exo-Earth around a quiet M dwarf at 3.4 parsecs" (PDF). Besoek op 15 November 2017.
  20. Torres, G.; Andersen, J.; Giménez, A. (2010). "Accurate masses and radii of normal stars: modern results and applications". The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review. 18 (1–2): 67–126. arXiv:0908.2624. Bibcode:2010A&ARv..18...67T. doi:10.1007/s00159-009-0025-1. S2CID 14006009.
  21. Bessel, F. W. (1839). "Bestimmung der Entfernung des 61sten Sterns des Schwans. Von Herrn Geheimen - Rath und Ritter Bessel". Astronomische Nachrichten (in Duits). 16 (5–6): 65–96. Bibcode:1838AN.....16...65B. doi:10.1002/asna.18390160502.
  22. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; et al. (2014). "The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth Program: IV. A Low-mass Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth". The Astrophysical Journal. 794 (1): 51. arXiv:1408.5645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...794...51H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/51. S2CID 17361592.
  23. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; et al. (2014). "The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth Program: IV. A Low-mass Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth". The Astrophysical Journal. 794 (1): 51. arXiv:1408.5645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...794...51H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/51. S2CID 17361592.
  24. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Rybizki, J.; Andrae, R.; Fouesneau, M. (2018). "Detection of the closest Jovian exoplanet in the Epsilon Indi triple system". [astro-ph.EP]. 
  25. 25,0 25,1 25,2 Chris Gelino, Davy Kirkpatrick, Adam Burgasser. "DwarfArchives.org: Photometry, spectroscopy, and astrometry of M, L, and T dwarfs". caltech.edu. Besoek op 2012-06-10.AS1-onderhoud: meer as een naam: authors list (link) (main page)
  26. Anglada-Escudé, G.; Reiners, A.; Pallé, E.; Ribas, I.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; López, C. Rodríguez; Morales, N.; López-González, M. J.; Hambsch, F.-J. (2019-08-13). "Red Dots: A temperate 1.5 Earth-mass planet in a compact multi-terrestrial planet system around GJ1061". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (in Engels). 493: 536–550. arXiv:1908.04717. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa248. S2CID 199551874.
  27. Henry, Todd J.; Ianna, Philip A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Jahreiss, Hartmut (July 1997). "The solar neighborhood IV: discovery of the twentieth nearest star". The Astronomical Journal. 114 (1): 388–395. Bibcode:1997AJ....114..388H. doi:10.1086/118482.
  28. 28,0 28,1 28,2 Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Beaulieu, Thomas D.; Ianna, Philip A.; Costa, Edgardo; Méndez, René A. (Desember 2006). "The Solar Neighborhood. XVII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: 20 New Members of the RECONS 10 Parsec Sample". The Astronomical Journal. 132 (6): 2360–2371. arXiv:astro-ph/0608230. Bibcode:2006AJ....132.2360H. doi:10.1086/508233. S2CID 15002841.
  29. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; et al. (2017). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XLII. A system of Earth-mass planets around the nearby M dwarf YZ Ceti". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 605: L11. arXiv:1708.03336. Bibcode:2017A&A...605L..11A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731581. S2CID 119393757.
  30. Gatewood, George (1 July 2008). "Astrometric Studies of Aldebaran, Arcturus, Vega, the Hyades, and Other Regions". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (1): 452–460. Bibcode:2008AJ....136..452G. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/1/452.
  31. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; et al. (2017). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XLI. A dozen planets around the M dwarfs GJ 3138, GJ 3323, GJ 273, GJ 628, and GJ 3293". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 602: A88. arXiv:1703.05386. Bibcode:2017A&A...602A..88A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201630153. S2CID 119418595.
  32. Pozuelos, Francisco J.; et al. (2020). "GJ 273: on the formation, dynamical evolution, and habitability of a planetary system hosted by an M dwarf at 3.75 parsec". Astronomy Astrophysics. 641: A23. arXiv:2006.09403. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038047.
  33. "The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Two temperate Earth-mass planet candidates around Teegarden's Star" (PDF).
  34. Caballero, J. A.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Dreizler, S.; Zechmeister, M. (2019-06-18). "The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Two temperate Earth-mass planet candidates around Teegarden's Star". Astronomy & Astrophysics (in Engels). 627: A49. arXiv:1906.07196. Bibcode:2019A&A...627A..49Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935460. ISSN 0004-6361.
  35. Anglada-Escude, G. (2014). "Two planets around Kapteyn's star : a cold and a temperate super-Earth orbiting the nearest halo red-dwarf". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 443: L89–L93. arXiv:1406.0818. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.443L..89A. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slu076. hdl:2299/19219. S2CID 67807856.
  36. The very nearby M/T dwarf binary SCR 1845-6357, Markus Kasper, Beth A. Biller, Adam Burrows, Wolfgang Brandner, Jano Budaj, and Laird M. Close, Astronomy and Astrophysics 471, #2 (Augustus 2007), pp. 655–659. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077881
  37. The Solar Neighborhood. XIII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 Meter Program: Stars with μ >= 1.0" yr-1 (Motion sample), Wei-Chun Jao, Todd J. Henry, John P. Subasavage, Misty A. Brown, Philip A. Ianna, Jennifer L. Bartlett, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, The Astronomical Journal 129, #4 (April 2005), pp. 1954–1967. doi:10.1086/428489
  38. 38,0 38,1 The Solar Neighborhood. XIV. Parallaxes from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation—First Results from the 1.5 m Telescope Program, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, W.-C. Jao, Todd J. Henry, John P. Subasavage, Misty A. Brown, Philip A. Ianna, and Jennifer Bartlett, The Astronomical Journal 130, #1 (July 2005), pp. 337–349. doi:10.1086/430473
  39. Leggett, S. K.; et al. (1 April 2012). "The Properties of the 500 K Dwarf UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, and a Study of the Far-Red Flux of Cold Brown Dwarfs". The Astrophysical Journal. 748 (2): 74. arXiv:1201.2973. Bibcode:2012ApJ...748...74L. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/748/2/74. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 14171934.
  40. "Nearby star hosts closest alien planet in the 'habitable zone'". Phys.org. Desember 16, 2015. Besoek op 2015-12-16.
  41. Gliese, W. and Jahreiß, H. (1991). "Gl 473". Preliminary Version of the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars. Besoek op 10 Mei 2018.AS1-onderhoud: meer as een naam: authors list (link)
  42. Martin, Emily C.; et al. (17 September 2018). "Y dwarf Trigonometric Parallaxes from the Spitzer Space Telescope". The Astrophysical Journal. 867 (2): 109. arXiv:1809.06479. Bibcode:2018ApJ...867..109M. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aae1af. S2CID 119097554.
  43. http://exoplanet.eu/star.php?st=GJ+674
  44. The Lick–Carnegie exoplanet survey: Gliese 687 b: A Neptune-mass planet orbiting a nearby red dwarf Geargiveer 27 Maart 2014 op Wayback Machine
  45. Feng, Fabo; Shectman, Stephen A.; Clement, Matthew S.; Vogt, Steven S.; Tuomi, Mikko; Teske, Johanna K.; Burt, Jennifer; Crane, Jeffrey D. et al. (2020), Search for Nearby Earth Analogs. III. Detection of ten new planets, three planet candidates, and confirmation of three planets around eleven nearby M dwarfs, doi:10.3847/1538-4365/abb139  Accepted for publication by ApJS
  46. Rivera, Eugenio J.; et al. (July 2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration". The Astrophysical Journal. 719 (1): 890–899. arXiv:1006.4244. Bibcode:2010ApJ...719..890R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/719/1/890. S2CID 118707953.
  47. Bailey, Jeremy; et al. (2009). "A Jupiter-like Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ832". The Astrophysical Journal. 690 (1): 743–747. arXiv:0809.0172. Bibcode:2009ApJ...690..743B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/690/1/743. S2CID 17172233.
  48. Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tuomi; et al. (2014). "GJ 832c: A super-earth in the habitable zone". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 114. arXiv:1406.5587. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..114W. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/114. S2CID 12157837.
  49. Carleo, I.; et al. (2020). "The GAPS Programme at TNG XXI – A GIARPS case-study of known young planetary candidates: Confirmation of HD 285507 b and refutation of AD Leo b". Astronomy & Astrophysics. A5: 638. arXiv:2002.10562. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201937369.
  50. 50,0 50,1 50,2 "G 158-50 - SIMBAD". SIMBAD. Besoek op 2015-09-12.
  51. Bihain, G.; Scholz, R.-D.; Storm, J.; Schnurr, O. (26 Augustus 2013). "An overlooked brown dwarf neighbour (T7.5 at ~ 5 pc) of the Sun and two additional T dwarfs at about 10 pc". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 557 (43): A43. arXiv:1307.2722. Bibcode:2013A&A...557A..43B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322141. S2CID 118454396.
  52. 52,0 52,1 The Close Approach of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood