Lys van grootste sterre

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Relatiewe groottes van die planete van die Sonnestelsel en verskeie bekende sterre, onder meer van die grootstes bekend: VY Canis Majoris, NML Cygni en UY Scuti.
  1. Mercurius < Mars < Venus < Aarde
  2. Aarde < Neptunus < Uranus < Saturnus < Jupiter
  3. Jupiter < Proxima Centauri < Son < Sirius
  4. Sirius < Pollux < Arcturus < Aldebaran
  5. Aldebaran < Rigel < Antares < Betelgeuse
  6. Betelgeuse < VY Canis Majoris < NML Cygni < UY Scuti

Hierdie lys van grootste sterre is gerangskik volgens hul radius. Die meeteenheid is ’n sonradius (sowat 695 500 km).

Die presiese volgorde van die sterre is nie honderd persent vasgestel nie:

  • Daar is taamlike onsekerhede oor geraamde waardes en groottes;
  • Die afstand na die verskillende sterre is nie oral ewe seker nie en dit beïnvloed die meting van die groottes;
  • Sommige sterre het ’n uitgebreide atmosfeer, is omring deur stof of pulseer, sodat hul radius nie presies bereken kan word nie;
  • Verskeie ander faktore kan ook die meting van die groottes beïnvloed.

Op dié lys is verskeie voorbeelde van sterre in uiters verre sterrestelsels, wat effens verskillende eienskappe het as die huidige grootste bekende sterre in die Melkweg. Sommige rooisuperreuse in die Magellaanse Wolke het byvoorbeeld na verwagting effens ander beperkende temperature en ligsterktes. Sulke sterre kan perke oorskry deur oor slegs ’n paar maande (of jaar) groot ontploffings of ’n verandering in hulle spektraaltipe te ondergaan.[1][2]

Die grootste ster wat waarskynlik nog ontdek is, is Stephenson 2-18. As dit in die plek van die Son geplaas word, sal dit tot anderkant Saturnus se wentelbaan strek.

Lys[wysig | wysig bron]

Lys van grootste sterre
Sternaam Sonradius
(Son = 1)
Notas Verwysings
Stephenson 2-18 2 150 Geleë naby die massiewe oop sterreswerm Stephenson 2, waar 26 rooisuperreuse voorkom. [3]
Sauturnus se wentelbaan 1 940 - 2 169 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
LGGS J004520.67+414717.3     1 870 - 2 510 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004539.99+415404.1 1 792 - 2 377    Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [2][5]
UY Scuti 1 708 Foutmarge in die groottevasstelling: ± 192 sonradiusse. Op sy kleinste sal hy so groot soos V354 Cephei wees (sien onder). [6]
WOH S71 (LMC 23095) 1 662 - 1 896 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [7][2]
HV 2242 (WOH S69) 1 645 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
SMC 78282 (PMMR 198) 1 600 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
HD 270422 1 599 - 2 259 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [9]
LGGS J013339.28+303118.8 1 565 - 1 863 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel [10][5]
WOH G64 1 540 - 1 730 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [11]
LGGS J013312.26+310053.3 1 537 - 1 765 Geleë in die Driehoeksterrestelsel. [10][5]
RSGC1-F01 1 530 Geleë in die oop sterreswerm RSGC1. [12]
LGGS J004431.71+415629.1 1 505 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
W61 8-88 (WOH S465) 1 491 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
LGGS J004336.68+410811.8 1 485 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HV 888 (WOH S140) 1 477 - 1 974 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. ’n Ander onlangse raming is 1 765. [13][14][2]
UCAC4 116-007944
(MSX LMC 810)
1 468 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
W60 A78 (WOH S459) 1 445 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
HV 12998 (WOH S369) 1 443 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
W60 A72 (WOH S453) 1 441 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
LGGS J013418.56+303808.6 1 436 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J003951.33+405303.7 1 425 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
VY Canis Majoris 1 420 ± 120 Is voorheen as die grootste bekende ster beskryf gebaseer op ’n radius van 1 800 - 2 100 soradiusse.[15] [16][17]
WOH S286 1 417 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [2]
AH Scorpii 1 411 ± 124 AH Sco is ’n veranderlike ster met byna 3 magnitudes in visuele omvang en ’n geraamde 20% in ligsterkte. Die variasie in die deursnee is nie duidelik nie omdat die temperatuur ook wissel. [18]
LGGS J004428.48+415130.9 1 410 - 1 504 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
MG73 46 (MSX LMC 891) 1 385 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [14]–1,838[2]
WOH S281 (IRAS 05261-6614) 1 376 - 1 459 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [19][2]
IRAS 05280-6910 1 367 - 1 738 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [7][20]
S Persei 1 364 ± 6 ’n Rooisuperreus in die Perseus-dubbelswerm. [21]
VX Sagittarii 1 356 Die helderste ster van die asimptotiese reusetak wat nog ontdek is met ’n bolometriese magnitude van -8,6. [22]
LGGS J004306.62+413806.2 1 349 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
PHL 293B 1 348 - 1 463 ’n Helder blou veranderlike ster in die sterrestelsel PHL 293B, wat min metale bevat. Dit het vermoedelik verdwyn. [23]
LGGS J004648.83+420418.4 1 346 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013414.27+303417.7 1 342 - 1 953 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [10][5]
RSGC1-F03 1 325 Geleë in die oop sterreswerm RSGC1. [3]
LGGS J004438.65+412934.1 1 320 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HV 5993 (WOH S464) 1 319 - 1 531 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [14][2]
PMMR 62 1 313 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
SW Cephei 1 308 [24]
SMC 18136 (PMMR 37) 1 307 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J004438.65+412934.1 1 320 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013318.20+303134.0 1 295 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LMC 170079 1 294 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J05294221-6857173 1 292 [10]
Z Doradus 1 271 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J004312.43+413747.1 1 270 - 1 630 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004632.18+415935.8 1 265 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013412.27+305314.1 1 258 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013310.71+302714.9 1 252 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004148.74+410843.0 1 248 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004514.91+413735.0 1 250 - 1 575 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J013403.73+304202.4 1 249 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004428.12+415502.9 1 240 - 1 259 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
RSGC1-F09 1 230 Geleë in die oop sterreswerm RSGC1. [3]
LGGS J004633.38+415951.3 1 229 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004416.28+412106.6 1 222 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
SMC 5092 (PMMR 9) 1 216 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
IRAS 05346-6949 1 211 - 2 064 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [25][9]
LGGS J004027.36+410444.9 1 201 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004125.23+411208.9 1 200 - 1 602 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J013423.29+305655.0 1 199 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
HV 2532 (WOH S287) 1 195 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J004506.85+413408.2 1 194 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HD 90587 1 191 [24]
HV 2084 (PMMR 186) 1 187 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
NML Cygni 1 183 [26]
LGGS J004503.35+413026.3 1 174 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004304.62+410348.4 1 171 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004524.97+420727.2 1 170 - 1 476 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004047.82+410936.4 1 167 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
Westerlund 1-26 1 165 - 1 221 Baie onsekere parameters vir ’n buitengewone ster met sterk radio-uitstralings. Die spektrum is veranderlik, maar blykbaar nie die ligsterkte nie. [27]
LGGS J004138.35+412320.7 1 159 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013353.91+302641.8 1 157 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
RSGC1-F08 1 150 Geleë in die oop sterreswerm RSGC1. [12]
W60 B90 (WOH S264) 1 149 - 2 555 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [19][2]
LGGS J013356.84+304001.4 1 149 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
HD 62745 1 145 [24]
LGGS J004347.31+411203.6 1 143 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004047.22+404445.5 1 140 - 1 379 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004035.08+404522.3 1 140 - 1 354 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J013343.30+303318.9 1 139 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
MY Cephei 1 134 - 2 061 Moenie verwar word met Mu Cephei nie (sien onder). Ouer ramings was tot 2 440 sonradiusse, gebaseer op baie koeler temperature.[28] [29][12]
LGGS J003942.92+402051.1 1 133 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004124.80+411634.7 1 130 - 1 423 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J013454.31+304109.8 1 122 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004731.12+422749.1 1 121 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013233.77+302718.8 1 129 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [10]
HV 2781 (WOH S470) 1 129 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
RSGC1-F02 1 128 Geleë in die oop sterreswerm RSGC1. [12]
SMC 56389 (PMMR 148) 1 128 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J004451.76+420006.0 1 116 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013400.91+303414.9 1 115 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
ST Cephei 1 109 [24]
HV 2561 (LMC 141430) 1 107 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J004219.25+405116.4 1 103 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HD 102115 1 100 [24]
LGGS J004107.11+411635.6 1 100 - 1 207 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004253.25+411613.9 1 099 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004124.81+411206.1 1 094 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004415.76+411750.7 1 084 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004447.74+413050.0 1 083 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013416.89+305158.3 1 081 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004031.00+404311.1 1 080 - 1 383 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
SMC 49478 (PMMR 115) 1 077 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
V366 Andromedae 1 076 [24]
LGGS J003943.89+402104.6 1 076 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
Trumpler 27-1 1 073 Geleë in die massiewe, moontlik oop sterreswerm Trumpler 27. [30]
LGGS J013336.64+303532.3 1 073 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
HV 897 (WOH S161) 1 073 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
SMC 20133 (PMMR 41) 1 072 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LMC 174714 1 072 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J013336.64+303532.3 1 073 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013326.90+310054.2 1 071 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004531.13+414825.7 1 070 - 1 420 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
IM Cassiopeiae 1 068 [24]
HV 11262 (PMMR 16) 1 067 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
Jupiter se wentelbaan 1 064 - 1 173 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
LGGS J003811.56+402358.2 1 060 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004030.64+404246.2 1 060 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HR 5171 Aa (V766 Centauri Aa) 1 060 - 1 160 [31]
LGGS J004631.49+421133.1 1 060 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J003942.42+403204.1 1 057 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004346.18+411515.0 1 057 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004638.17+420008.9 1 056 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004501.30+413922.5 1 054 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
SMC 25879 (PMMR 54) 1 053 Geleë in die Klein Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
LGGS J013416.28+303353.5 1 048 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
SU Persei 1 048 [24]
LGGS J013322.82+301910.9 1 048 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J013328.85+310041.7 1 046 Geleë in die Driehoek-sterrestelsel. [5]
RSGC1-F05 1 047 Geleë in die oop sterreswerm RSGC1. [3]
WX Piscium 1 044 [32]
WOH G371 (LMC 146126) 1 043 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
WOH S327 (LMC 142202) 1 043 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [8]
V358 Cassiopeiae 1 043 ’n Rooihiperreus in die sterrebeeld Kassiopeia.[33] [34]
LGGS J003910.56+402545.6 1 042 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004114.18+403759.8 1 040 - 1 249 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J003912.77+404412.1 1 037 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004507.90+413427.4 1 034 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004406.60+411536.6 1 033 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
IRAS 04509-6922 1 027 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [25]
AS Cephei 1 026 [24]
LGGS J004120.25+403838.1 1 021 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004108.42+410655.3 1 021 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004125.72+411212.7 1 020 - 1 359 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004059.50+404542.6 1 020 - 1 367 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [4][5]
LGGS J004607.45+414544.6 1 018 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HD 167861 1 016 [24]
LGGS J004305.77+410742.5 1 015 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004424.94+412322.3 1 013 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
HV 986 (WOH S368) 1 010 Geleë in die Groot Magellaanse Wolk. [35]
LGGS J004415.17+415640.6 1 008 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
LGGS J004118.29+404940.3 1 005 Geleë in die Andromeda-sterrestelsel. [5]
Die volgende sterre met groottes onder 1 000 sonradiusse word aangedui vir vergelyking
CZ Hydrae Een van die koelste sterre teen 2 000 K. [36]
Mu Cephei ("Herschel se "Granaatsteenster") 972 ± 228 Prototipe van die verouderde klas Mu Cephei-veranderlikes en een van die rooiste sterre in terme van B-V-kleurindeks.[37] Ander ramings is so hoog soos 1 650 sonradiusse, gebaseer op hoekdeursnee.[38] [39]
V602 Carinae 932 - 1 151 [30][24]
Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) 764+116−62 Ster met die derde grootste skynbare magnitudeR Doradus en die Son. Helderste rooisuperreus in die naglus. Nog ’n raming is 955±217 soradiusse [40]
Antares A (Alpha Scorpii A) 707 Die raming van Antares se grootte was oorspronkliker meer as 850 sonradiusse,[41][42] maar dit is waarskynlik beïnvloed deur asimmetry van die ster se atmosfeer.[43] [24]
V354 Cephei 685 [30]
KY Cygni 672 - 1 420 [30][44][45]
119 Tauri (CE Tauri) 587 - 593 [46]
CW Leonis 580 - 686 Prototipe van koolstofsterre. CW Leo is verkeerdelik geïdentifiseer as die vermeende "Planeet X". [47]
Mira A (Omicron Ceti) 541 Prototipe van Mira-veranderlikes. De Beck et al. het die grootte in 2010 bereken as 541 sonradiusse. [26]
VV Cephei A 516 - 1 000 VV Cep A is ’n hoogs verwronge ster en deel van ’n dubbelster; dit verloor massa aan die sekondêre ster vir minstens deel van sy wentelbaan. Data van die mees onlangse eklips het twyfel gewerp op die aanvaarde model van die stelsel. Ouer ramings is tot 1 900 sonradiusse.[44] [48][49]
V382 Carinae (x Carinae) 485 ± 40 Geelhiperreus, een van die skaarsste soorte sterre. [50]
Pistoolster 435 Blou hiperreus, een van die grootste en helderste sterre bekend. [51]
HD 179821 (V1427 Aquilae) 400 - 450 Dalk ’n geelhiperreus of veel dowwer ster. [31]
V509 Cassiopeiae 390 - 910 Geel hiperreus. [52]
Binnegrens: asteroïdegordel. 380 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
IRC +10420 380 ’n Geelhiperreus waarvan die temperatuur toegeneem het tot in die LBV-reeks. De Beck et al. het in 2010 die grootte geraam op 1 342 sonradiusse, gebaseer op ’n baie koeler temperatuur.[26] [53]
V688 Monocerotis 372 Teen 2 000 K ook een van die koelste sterre. [36]
R Doradus 298 ± 21 ’n Ster met die tweede grootste skynbare grootte, naas die Son. [54]
Mars se wentelbaan 297 - 358 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
La Superba (Y Canum Venaticorum) 289 - 352 Een van die koelste en rooiste sterre. [24][55]
Rooireusfase van die Son 256 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
Rho Cassiopeiae 242 Geelhiperreus. [24]
Eta Carinae A ~240 Voorheen is geglo dit is die grootste enkele ster, maar in 2005 is besef dit is ’n dubbelster. Daar word geglo η Car is tussen 60 en 881 sonradiusse.[56] [57]
Aarde se wentelbaan 215 (211 - 219) Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
Son se bewoonbare sone 200 - 520[58] (onseker) Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
Venus se wentelbaan 154 - 157 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
Epsilon Aurigae A (Almaaz A) 143 358 In 1970 is valslik beweer ε Aurigae is die grootste ster, met ’n grootte van tussen 2 000 en 3 000 sonradiusse,[59] maar dit het later geblyk stof omring die ster. [60]
Deneb (Alpha Cygni) 99,84 Prototipe van Alpha Cygni-veranderlikes. [24]
Peony-ster 92 Kandidaat vir die helderste ster in die Melkweg. [61]
Canopus (Alpha Carinae) 71 Tweede helderste ster in die naglug. [62]
Mercurius se wentelbaan 66 - 100 Aangedui vir grootteverwysing
LBV 1806-20 46 - 145 Voorheen ’n kandidaat vir die helderste ster in die Melkweg, met ’n ligsterkte van 40 miljoen keer dié van die Son,[63] maar dit is later verlaag tot 2 miljoen keer.[64][65] [66]
Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) 44,13 ± 0,84 14de helderste ster in die naglug. [67]
R136a1 39,2 Al aangetoon as een van die grootste en helderste sterre bekend. [68]
Polaris (Alpha Ursae Minoris) 37,5 Die huidige noordpoolster. [69]
Arcturus (Alpha Boötis) 24,25 Helderste ster in die Noordelike Halfrond. [24]
HDE 226868 20 - 22 Die superreus-metgesel van die swartkolk Cygnus X-1. Die swartkolk is sowat 500 000 keer so klein soos die ster. [70]
Son 1 Die grootste voorwerp in die Sonnestelsel.
Aangedui vir grootteverwysing

Sien ook[wysig | wysig bron]

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

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