Gebruiker:Charlielv55/sandput/Boedapest Strykkwartet

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Boedapest Strykkwartet
The Budapest String Quartet.png
Die Boedapest Strykkwartet, Maart 1938. L-na-R: Josef Roisman, Boris Kroyt, Alexander Schneider, Mischa Schneider
Aktiewe jare1917 tot 1967
Portal.svg Musiekportaal

Die Boedapest Strykkwartet was 'n strykkwartet wat vanaf 1917 tot 1967 bestaan het. Dit het oorspronklik uit drie Hongare en 'n Nederlander bestaan. Teen die einde van die bestaan daarvan het die kwartet uit vier Russe bestaan. 'n Groot aantal opnames was vir HMV/Victor (later EMI) tot 1938 gemaak; vanaf 1940 tot 1967 het dit opnames vir Columbia Records gemaak. Bykomend hiertoe, was verskeie van die kwartet se uitvoerings lewendig opgeneem by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres en ander liggings.

Lede[wysig | wysig bron]

Boedapest Strykkwartet by die Fredric R. Mann Ouditorium, Tel Aviv, 1961

1ste Viool:

  • Emil Hauser (1893–1978) (van 1917 tot 1932)
  • Josef Roisman (Joe) (1900–1974) (van 1932 tot 1967)

2de Viool:

  • Alfred Indig (1892–?)(van 1917 tot 1920)
  • Imre Pogany (1893–1975) (van 1920 tot 1927)
  • Josef Roisman (Joe) (1900–1974) (van 1927 tot 1932)
  • Alexander Schneider (Sasha) (1908–1993) (van 1932 tot 1944 en van 1955 tot 1967)
  • Edgar Ortenberg (1900–1996) (van 1944 tot 1949)
  • Jac Gorodetzky (1913–1955) (van 1949 tot 1955)

Altviool:

  • István Ipolyi (1886–1955) (van 1917 tot 1936)
  • Boris Kroyt (1897–1969) (van 1936 tot 1967)

Tjello:

  • Harry Son (gebore Henri Mozes Son) (1880–1942) (van 1917 tot 1930)
  • Mischa Schneider (1904–1985) (van 1930 tot 1967)

Geskiedenis van die kwartet[wysig | wysig bron]

Stigting[wysig | wysig bron]

Die Boedapest Strykkwartet was in 1917 deur vier vriende gestig wat almal lede van opera-orkeste was wat na die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ophou speel het. Die lede was almal leerlinge van Jenő Hubay (viool), 'n Hongaarse leerling van Joseph Joachim; en David Popper, 'n Boheemse tjellis. Hubay en Popper het daartoe bygedra om van Boedapest 'n belangrike sentra vir musikale opvoeding te maak, wat bekende studente soos Joseph Szigeti aangetrek het. Hubay en Popper was, wat betref die formasie van twee ander kwartette wat hul name gedra het, ondersteuners van Sándor Végh en Feri Roth, en was self deel van 'n vroeëre Boedapest Kwartet uit 1886, met die nuwe kwartet wat ter ere van dié eertydse kwartet 'n gelyke benaming ontvang het. Die debuut uitvoering van die nuwe Boedapest Kwartet (in Hongaars: Budapesti Vonósnégyes) het in Desember 1917 in Kolozsvár (toe in Hongarye, nou bekend as Cluj-Napoca, en geleë in die teenswoordige Roemenië) plaasgevind.[1]

Die kwartet is op die been gebring met die volgende reëls:

  1. Alle dispute, van musikale- of sake-aard, moes deur 'n stemming opgelos word. In die geval van 'n staking van stemme, sou daar geen verandering wees nie.
  2. Spelers sou nie toegelaat word om betrekkinge buite die kwartet aan te neem nie.
  3. Spelers sou gelyke soldy ontvang, insluitende Eerste Viool, wat nie op meer geregtig sou wees nie.
  4. Geen vroue/gades of vriendinne sou gedurende repetisies of gesprekke toegelaat word nie.[1]

Geen vorige kwartet het gepoog om geheel en al van hul opbrengste te leef nie. Dit was derhalwe 'n brawe besluit vir daardie era gewees.[1] Veel later, in Julie 1930, het die lede 'n verdere reël bygevoeg ten einde die kwessie van gelykop-stemme aan te spreek: Een speler, by wyse van 'n lootjie gekies, sou 'n beslissende stem hê. Sy voorletters sou geskryf word op die musiek, en hy sou altyd die ekstra stem vir daardie spesifieke stuk hê. Indien hy vervang is, sou sy opvolger sy stemregte erf.[2]

Die oorspronklike lede was Emil Hauser, 24 jaar oud, van Boedapest; Alfred Indig, 25, van Hongarye; István Ipolyi, 31-jarig, van Újvidék in Hongarye; en laastens Harry Son van Rotterdam in Nederland.[1]

Indig het in 1920 ter najaging van beter vooruitsigte bedank. Hy is deur Imre Pogany vervang, 'n boorling van Boedapest wat onder Hubay en Zoltán Kodály studeer het. Nadat hy bedank het, het Indig 'n solis by die Amsterdamse Concertgebouw-orkes geword; en in 1931 het hy die konsertmeester van die Berliner Philharmoniker geword. Toe die Nasionaal-Sosialiste aan bewind gekom het, het Indig na Parys gevlug waar hy vir 'n rukkie 'n ander kwartet gelei het. Het het in 1951 na Amsterdam getrek, en daarna na Parys teruggekeer. Die datum en plek van sy dood is onbekend.[1][3]

Die skuif na Berlyn[wysig | wysig bron]

In omstreeks 1921 of 1922 het die kwartet as gevolg van politieke onrus in Boedapest na Berlyn verhuis waar die groep 'n groot repertorium ontwikkel het maar slegs gemengde welslae behaal het en gemengde resensies ontvang het. Die kwartet het in 1925 sy buiging in Londen gemaak en 'n opname-kontrak aangegaan met His Master's Voice (nou EMI). Die kwartet het opnames gemaak by HMV se Ateljee B by Hayes en die Queen's Hall.[4]

Pogany het in Mei 1927, sonder om die ander kwartetlede daarvan te verwittig, na Cincinnati gereis om sy vriend, die dirigent Fritz Reiner toe te spreek betreffende 'n geleentheid in sy simfonie-orkes. Gevolglik was hy die pos van prinsipiële tweede viool aangebied, wat hy egter op daardie tydstip afgekeer het. Die ander lede van die kwartet was woedend, want indien hy wel sou besluit om die kwartet te verlaat sou hulle dit uiters uitdagend gevind het om betyds repetisies te hou en 'n speler vir die nuwe seisoen te vind. In die gevolglike rusie wat daaruit voortgespruit het, het Pogany bedank.[5] Hy het toe na Amerika geëmigreer en hierdie keer besluit om by die Cincinnati Simfonieorkes aan te sluit en by die plaaslike konservatoria klas te gee. Hy het in 1929 na die New York Filharmoniese Orkes onder Arturo Toscanini aanbeweeg waar hy tot sy aftrede in 1958 sou bly.[3]

Josef Roisman – tweede viool[wysig | wysig bron]

Die aanbevole persoon om Pogany te vervang was Josef Roisman, ook bekend as Joe. Roisman is op 25 Julie 1900 in Odessa gebore, en het op die ouderdom ses die viool onder Pyotr Stolyarsky bemeester, wie ook die eerste leermeester van David Oistrakh en Nathan Milstein was. Na die tragiese vroeë afsterwe van Joe se vader, het 'n welgestelde dame van Odessa dit moontlik gemaak vir Roisman, sy suster en sy moeder, om na Berlyn te verhuis en daar onder Alexander Fiedemann te studeer. Roisman het daar bevriend geraak met Boris Kroyt, te wete nog 'n persoon van Odessa wat onder Fiedemann studeer het. Die gesin het teen die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog na Odessa teruggekeer waar Roisman voortgegaan het met sy studies onder Naoam Blinder, nog 'n persoon van Odessa wat sopas van Engeland af teruggekeer het.[6]

Na die Russiese rewolusie moes Roisman op plase en by fabrieke gespeel. Hy het in 1923 daarin geslaag om te ontsnap terwyl hy naby Pole werksaam was. Hy het na Praag en daarna na Berlyn gereis. In Berlyn het hy weer vir Kroyt gesien, wat vir hom werk in 'n rolprentorkes gekry het. Dit was gedurende die tyd dat die aanbod van die kwartet aan hom gerig is. Roisman was gemaklik en gevestig in die orkes, maar sy eerste liefde was kamermusiek. Op die einde het sy vrou Polo hom oorreed om die finansiële risiko en opofferings te neem wat daarmee gepaard sou gaan.[6]

Hy het dit egter onmiddellik berou. Hauser en Son was konstant aan't stry. Verder meer het Roisman sy eie kwessies gehad om te verwerk, vernaam wat Hauser en Ipolyi se onvermoë om in spiccato (Duits: Springbogen, of met 'n "springende" strykstok) te speel, sodat die kwartet geforseer was om dit nie te gebruik nie. Die res van die kwartet moes deskundiges op die gebruik van 'n ander stryktegniek (Duits: Spitzen of staccato, by die punt van die strykstok) aanleer om te vergoede vir Hauser en Ipolyi se gebrek aan spiccato-tegniek. Roisman het dit besonders moeilik en uitdagend gevind om sy styl dienooreenkomstig aan te pas. Hy moes baie ure daaraan spandeer, en was ongelukkig met die resultaat. In Duitsland was die kwartet das Spitzenquartett (nie 'n kompliment nie) genoem omdat dit Springbogen (spiccato) met Spitzen (staccato) vervang het.[7]

Son kon uiteindelik in 1930/31 nie meer die aanhoudende argumente verduur nie, en het bedank.[7] Hy het na die Palestynse mandaatgebied getrek en in konserte daar en oorsee gespeel. Kort voor die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het hy die noodlottige besluit geneem om na Rotterdam terug te keer. Nadat die Duitsers Nederland ingeval het is hy en sy vrou Marianne in Amsterdam gearresteer. Hulle het in 1942 in die berugte Auschwitz-Monowitz konsentrasiekamp gesterf.[3][8]

Mischa Schneider – tjellist[wysig | wysig bron]

Die nuwe tjellis se naam was oorspronklik Mojzesz Sznejder, was later verduits is as 'Mischa Schneider'. Hy is in 1904 in Vilna, Rusland gebore (alhoewel sommige dit in Pole plaas in daardie tyd) (nou Vilnius, Litaue), waar die gevierde vioolvirtuoos Jascha Heifetz in 1901 gebore is, en het 'n moeilike jeug beleef. Dit het maar boomskraap gegaan, en sy vader was 'n tiran. Mischa het dikwels sy jonger broer teen hul vader verdedig. In 1920 het Mischa as sestienjarige sy ouerhuis verlaat om in Leipzig onder Julius Klengel, te wete sy onderwyser se beroemde leermeester, te studeer. Medestudente het Emanuel Feuermann, Gregor Piatigorski en Jascha Heifetz se broer Benar Heifetz ingesluit. Nadat hy gegradueer het, het hy na Frankfurt getrek waar hy by die Hoch Konservatoria klas gegee het. Hy het gevind dat hy aan verhoog-skuheid ly indien hy solo speel; maar nie 'n probleem was wanneer hy in 'n strykkwartet gespeel het nie. Hy het by die Prisca Kwartet aangesluit, maar na 'n wyle bedank as gevolg van 'n persoonlikheidsbotsing met twee ander lede. Die Prisca het dikwels in Keulen gespeel, en dit is daar wat hy die Reifenbergs leer ken het, wie se dogter Eva getroud was met Emanuel Feuermann. Dit was Frau Reifenberg wat Schneider aan die Boedapest Kwartet bekendgestel het.[9]

Amerikaanse buiging[wysig | wysig bron]

In Januarie en Februarie 1931 het die kwartet hul eerste toer in die Verenigde State meegemaak. Die resensies was redelik goed, maar vanuit 'n finansiele oogpunt gesien was die toer nie bevredigend nie. Argumente oor Spitzen vs. Springbogen strykwerk en ander aangeleenthede het bly kop uitsteek, en verhoudinge het moeilik begin word. Hauser wou toe in 1932 'n paar konserte saam met Alice Ehlers speel. Die kwartet het egter geweier om hierdie afwyking van die reëls toe te laat. Na die gevolglike argument het Hauser bedank.[10] Hy het na Jerusalem geëmigreer en 'n kwartet gevorm. Hy het ook die vooraanstaande Pools-Joodse konserviolis Bronisław Huberman gehelp om Jode uit Oostenryk, Tsjeggo-Slowakye en Duitsland te red. Hy het in 1940 na die VSA getrek waar hy aanvanklik by Bard Kollege in bo-New York staat klas gegee het en later by die Juilliard Skool van Musiek. Hauser het in 1948 na Israel teruggekeer, waar hy in 1978 op die ouderdom van vier-en-tagtig jaar beswyk het.[3]

Roisman word die leier en Alexander Schneider die tweede violis[wysig | wysig bron]

Nadat die kwartet vir Hauser verloor het, het dit 'n nuwe leier benodig. Om 'n onbekende speler as eerste viool aan te stel is 'n riskante stap vir 'n kwartet, en as gevolg van die gevestigde verhoudinge en 'gemaklikheidsvlak', is 'n oorskakeling van tweede na eerste viool veiliger. Om hierdie rede was Roisman uiteindelik oortuig om die oorskakeling van tweede na eerste viool te maak.[11]

Die nuwe tweede viool was Mischa Schneider se jonger boer, Alexander Schneider (Sasha), gebore as Abram Sznejder. Alexander het op die ouderdom van dertien jaar byna aan Klem-in-die-kaak beswyk na 'n kniebesering. Die tetanus het sy gewrigte verwring en sy herstel was uitgerek en pynlik. Sasha het Vilna in 1924 verlaat en by sy broer in Frankfurt aangesluit, waar hy 'n beurs bekom het om viool onder Adolf Rebner, die hoof vioolpedagoog by die Hoch Konservatoria, te studeer. In 1927 het Alexander leier (konsertmeester) van 'n orkes in Saarbrücken geword; en in 1929 het hy leier van die Noord-Duitse Radio-simfonieorkes in Hamburg geword, welke posisie hy tot 1932 sou hou toe hy afgedank is as gevolg van van die voortslepende Nazi veldtog teen Jode. Dit was tyd gewees om Duitsland te verlaat, en die vakante Boedapest posisie het net op die regte oomblik gekom.[12]

Na Sasha se koms het die Kwartet se speelvlakke onmiddellik verbeter en het die groep begin om groter gehore te trek. Suksesvolle toere van die VSA, Nederlandse Oos-Indië, Australië en Nieu-Seeland het hierop gevolg; en die Australiese Uitsaai Korporasie het die kwartet ses maande se werk uit 'n jaar beloof in ruil daarvoor dat hulle na Australië sou verhuis. Persoonlike verhoudinge binne die kwartet was egter steeds power. Sasha het altyd die slegste met die stemme gevaar; welke hy gehaat het, maar Ipolyi kon egter daarin slag om hom rustiger te maak daaroor. Ipolyi het self persoonlike probleme gehad, en Mischa het met sy vrou geskei en weer getrou. Bykomend hiertoe was die groep steeds nie winsgewend nie. [13]

Teen 1934 was alle Jode uit Duitse orkeste verdryf, maar die Kwartet het as 'Hongaarse' besoekers gespaar gebly tot een aand toe hulle dreigemente van 'n Nazi groep ontvang het. Hulle het oornag hul hoofkwartiere van Berlyn na Parys geskuif, om nooit weer na Duitsland terug te keer nie. Hulle het deur Europa en die VSA getoer, maar het altyd in goedkoop hotelle gebly en goedkoop kos geëet. [14]

Last founding member leaves[wysig | wysig bron]

Ipolyi became an isolated member of the quartet, the only Hungarian among three Russians. He was also the only Spitzen player left, old-fashioned in style and on the verge of a nervous breakdown as well. In 1936, the others persuaded him to resign. He settled in Norway, and during the German occupation was arrested but freed thanks to the intervention of Count Bernadotte, head of the International Red Cross. He fled to Sweden, but returned to Norway after the war. He became a Norwegian citizen, coached a quartet in Bergen and became a professor. Mischa Schneider made sure that Ipolyi received the royalties due him until the latter's death in 1955.[3]

Boris Kroyt becomes violist[wysig | wysig bron]

Finding a new violist to replace Ipolyi was urgent. The Australian Broadcast Corporation had engaged the Quartet for a twenty-week tour to start in May 1937 with four performances a week and the option of another ten weeks in New Zealand. They needed the money despite regular engagements in Europe and America. Roisman nearly hired Edgar Ortenberg, whom he had known when they were both children in Odessa and then again in Berlin in 1926, but Ortenberg's wife wanted him to stick to the violin. Roisman then tried to locate his teenage friend Boris Kroyt in Berlin. Until the Nazis became all-powerful Kroyt had lived well, but the Nazis stopped all Jews from working except in Jewish groups. He had a wife and a child to support, and they were all in danger. The Budapest offer came at the ideal moment. He was such a natural player that he could get away without practicing very much. They took time to get used to one another, but eventually attained a very high technical standard.[15]

In November 1936, they reached New York and critics were impressed as never before, comparing them with Toscanini and Schnabel. Concerts were well attended. In spring 1937 they went on to Australia, New Zealand and Dutch East Indies with equally good results. When the time came to return to Europe, they considered settling in Australia and held a vote on it. The Spanish Civil War had closed many venues in Italy and all in Spain. The Schneiders voted for Australia, while the other two opted to move on. In accordance with their longstanding rule, a tie meant "no change" so they moved on. After playing in France and Britain, they reached New York again in March 1938.[16]

All the U.S. concerts were negotiated by Annie Friedberg in New York. This continued throughout their time in the U.S., starting with very little money but eventually ending with excellent returns for them and her.[17]

They had made five U.S. tours with no difficulty, but this time they were refused entry. Their Nansen passports were not good enough, apparently. They were ignominiously carted off to Ellis Island in a coal barge. It took frantic string-pulling by Friedberg – involving Mayor La Guardia – to get them out just in time for their first concert. They weren't in optimal condition for a concert and thought their performance wasn't too good, but nonetheless they got a rave review from The New York Times. This, finally, opened the door to real success in the U.S. Suddenly all the critics were praising them as never before, and audiences and bookings flooded in.[18] Considering the Munich Agreement of 1938 when Chamberlain appeased Hitler and what soon happened in Europe, the break came just in time.

On April 25, 1938, they recorded the Mozart Clarinet Quintet with Benny Goodman for the Victor label. It sold well, although Goodman regretted not having first performed it live. He and the quartet made only three concerts together: October and November 1938 and August 1941. Each time, reviewers justifiably felt the result accurate (i.e., merely perfunctory) but uninspired as hoped for and expected.[19]

In 1939 they again had good results in Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, Norway and Britain but not in Spain and Italy, where fascism reigned and people were consequently more concerned with political issues. From the U.S., the group was commissioned to play five Stradivarius string instruments which needed regular use as part of the instrument collection at the Washington Library of Congress. These instruments had been purchased and donated by longtime influential contributor Gertrude Clarke Whittall. The recital hall on the grounds of the Library had been built in 1925 with funding donated by Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, a major benefactress of chamber music and of several music festivals. At that time, the quartet felt it would keep them away from troublesome existing conditions in war-torn Europe.[20]

U.S. becomes the home base[wysig | wysig bron]

In the summer they were back in the U.S. for three months at Mills College in Oakland, California, where they could relax. The Pro Arte Quartet was normally in summer residence there, but this year they preferred to stay in their home territory of Belgium. They never returned, their leader Alphonse Onnou died suddenly in Milwaukee during an American tour, and the Budapest resided at Mills for the next fifteen summers. The first summer there, they learned that World War II had broken out in Europe, where their contracts had consequently been voided. The Library of Congress offer now sounded quite attractive, and they accepted it. Their concerts there continued for many years, and the Library was an extremely important venue for them.[21]

Since 1925 they had been making recordings for His Master's Voice, first at the Beethoven Saal in Berlin, then at the Abbey Road Studio in London and from 1938 on in Camden, New Jersey for RCA Victor, the U.S. subsidiary of His Master's Voice. The HMV contract was valid until June 1940. It was not paying well, RCA had a good stock of recordings not yet published and was not keen to make any more recordings in 1939. The quartet found it difficult to persuade RCA to give them as much work as they wanted, or to pay them as their new reputation might justify. Nor was RCA eager to extend the existing contract. The quartet felt that with their increasing reputation in the U.S., it could do better signing with, and recording for, Columbia Records. Columbia was delighted to sign the group and make as many recordings as the quartet wished, since it had no existing stock. The deal was made, and kept secret as long as possible. When RCA finally learned about it they protested, "We are astonished. ... [this is] close to a definite breach of faith." They should have realized that they had no right to be the only negotiators in a deal. Over 35 years the quartet recorded 89 individual works, some of them several times. For many years it was Columbia's leading classical music seller, and so quite a loss to RCA.[22]

Early on, however, there were difficulties. First the American Federation of Musicians, protecting American jobs, demanded that someone should pay two members to be "standbys" during recordings. The quartet and Columbia argued about which of them should pay. After this was settled, the AFM struck Columbia in a dispute over royalties that lasted until February 1945. Also, after war was declared, the U.S. Government rationed materials for making records. Even so, between 1941 and 1946, the quartet earned $60,000 from Columbia in royalties in addition to $16,000 from HMV.[23]

Alexander Schneider replaced by Edgar Ortenberg[wysig | wysig bron]

Sasha felt he could and needed to work outside the quartet. As second violinist, he did not get the same challenges or independence as the leader. After thinking about this a lot, he finally reached his decision and told the others on November 26, 1943. He was still only 35, having spent eleven years in the quartet, and needed to expand his range. On January 1, 1944 the quartet selected the new second, Edgar Ortenberg, the man who had nearly become the violist a decade before.[24]

Like Joe and Boris, Edgar had grown up in Odessa. Until the Russian Revolution his father had been a bank manager, but afterwards the Ortenbergs were very short of money. In 1921 he won the gold medal at the Odessa Conservatory, and was immediately hired to teach there. In 1924 he moved to Berlin for greener pastures just as Joe, the Schneiders, and Boris had done, where he immediately got a scholarship at the Hochschule für Musik. He changed his name from Eleazer to Edgar, and started a quartet which toured Europe until 1933 when the Nazis sacked them all. He then quickly moved to Paris, where the Russian Conservatory there formed a quartet under his leadership which had some success in Europe. When war was threatened, he joined the French army but in April 1940 (just before the disastrous defeat by the invading Germans) was discharged due to illness, and he and his wife left Paris just ahead of the Germans. They went to Portugal and caught the very last Spanish ship departing for the U.S. After struggling in New York for some time, he received that second offer from the Budapest Quartet in December 1943 and this time accepted it.[25]

Edgar was generally considered a fine replacement for Sasha except that some critics and all the players felt he should play more forcibly. On the other hand, he felt their playing was a bit rough. He also wanted to spend more time rehearsing since he needed to get used to their methods and accustomed to their large repertory. The others, especially Boris, were not so keen to rehearse. It took Edgar two years to feel fully at home, but still the others felt he should practice more on his own and he was becoming noticeably nervous. Critics still felt the quartet was wonderful, but not quite as good as before. Ortenberg was also exhausted by the constant traveling, and late in 1948 the others told him they wanted a different second violinist. As soon as it was made public, Ortenberg was swamped by other offers and last performed with the quartet on March 10, 1949 at Cornell University. He joined the Settlement Music School in Philadelphia, where he remained until his retirement in 1984. He also taught at Temple University from 1953 to 1978.[26]

Jac Gorodetzky[wysig | wysig bron]

The new second violinist was Jac Gorodetzky. He was born in Odessa but the family moved to London when he was only one, to avoid a pogrom. They moved to the U.S. before the war, settling in Philadelphia. He was well thought of as a student and secured good positions in orchestras and quartets. Although his playing, like Ortenberg's, was a little quiet, he was well thought of during the Budapest auditions, when in his mid-thirties.[27]

In 1950, the quartet went to Europe for the first time after the war. They agreed not to go to Germany, especially because Schneider had lost his mother and sister in Auschwitz. This tour, together with the continual demands in the U.S., heavily stressed Gorodetzky. He developed stage fright, and sometimes pleaded for extra rehearsals of works they had already played.[28]

Then in September 1952, they played in Japan as the first quartet to tour there after the war. The whole season was sold out in two hours. Three thousand attended their first concert. There were staff to attend to their every need, and cars to take them everywhere. One night they felt the need to get some exercise in Okayama. They were walking on a narrow road, when Joe fell into a nine-foot ditch and broke his left wrist. They had it set at the U.S. military hospital in Tokyo. On their return to the U.S., they were told the wrist had been improperly set and had to be re=broken and reset. Concerts were switched to trios and piano quartets during Roisman's recovery. After months of hard work, he rejoined the quartet in Portland, Oregon on January 12, 1953.[29]

A second Japanese tour in 1954 was even more successful, but Jac was getting more uncomfortable. In February, he told the others he wanted to leave. They hoped to talk him out of it, but none of them realized how unwell he was. Finally, in November 1955, he committed suicide in a small hotel in Washington. The other players felt awful, and played benefit concerts for his family at the Settlement Music School. Later, Mischa left them most of his music and on his death Joe left them most of his money.[30]

Alexander Schneider returns[wysig | wysig bron]

Joe refused to accept another new second violinist, and fortunately they managed to persuade Sasha to return. Against their prior rule, they allowed him to spend some time working independently because they needed him and they did not want to take as many engagements as before. As soon as he returned, they all felt happier than they had for many years, their playing showed resultant rejuvenated strength and the critics were fulsome in their praise.[31]

In the ten years away from the quartet, Sasha had been very busy. He rejected offers to lead the Pro Arte and Paganini Quartets, but toured and recorded with harpsichordist Ralph Kirkpatrick, played and recorded unaccompanied Bach, and played and recorded trios and piano quartets with prominent New York chamber players. He studied with Pablo Casals in Prades, whom he persuaded to start festivals in Prades, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Israel and Marlboro (Vermont). He started his own Schneider Quartet to record all the Haydn quartets for the Haydn Society label, although the Society ran out of money before the project was finished. He persuaded Mrs Coolidge to sponsor free outdoor concerts in Greenwich Village, and played guest second violin with the Budapesters when Ortenberg or Gorodetzky was indisposed.[31]

Decline[wysig | wysig bron]

As the 1960s approached, the quartet was quite happy. It was the most popular and world-famous quartet, with 55 record albums published by Columbia and two million copies sold, and was playing in many famous venues and festivals. But then Joe's intonation began to fail him at times, apparently in the aftermath of a mild heart attack at the end of 1960. Only then did he tell the others that as long ago as 1939, he had been told of a problem with high blood pressure. He had occasionally had intonation problems before, which worsened late in 1960.[32]

In March 1962, they played their final concert in the Library of Congress in the aftermath of several problems of which Joe's intonation had been the worst. Critics, listeners and Mrs Coolidge herself had complained. They were replaced by the brilliant young Juilliard Quartet of New York.[33] That autumn, in Europe, Joe suddenly suffered a slipped disc. He restarted playing in early 1963, however, and they returned to Australia after a 26-year absence. But Joe's energy level was declining, and they cut down the number of concerts year by year.[34] ,

Marlboro College[wysig | wysig bron]

In 1955, Sasha had joined the Marlboro Music School and Festival at Marlboro College in southern Vermont (see above). It was a school, a music festival and a summer retreat. Like a human whirlwind, he pushed the young players to stretch their talents. In time, he brought in the other Budapest players (see below), who helped make the place a breeding ground for a new generation of chamber musicians. The school had been founded in 1950 by incomparable chamber violinist Adolf Busch and eminent flautist Marcel Moyse, and their families. Busch died in 1952 before Sasha arrived, but his son-in-law, pianist Rudolf Serkin, was still quite active and he and Sasha became staunch friends, the latter spending the next twenty summers there.[35]

In 1962 Sasha persuaded Mischa to come too, and the next year the whole quartet came, followed by many other outstanding experienced musicians and many talented younger players, all reaching high standards. Some students found Sasha assertive to the point of aggressively demanding, and his manner was a bit hard on those who were nervous or not dedicated to strive for the highest standards, while Mischa and Boris were gentler. They were very willing to try new ideas from their students, and each generation was inspired by the enthusiasm of the other.[35]

Sasha persuaded Michael Tree, Arnold Steinhardt, John Dalley and David Soyer to form a brilliant new quartet – a daunting challenge for any player – and Boris suggested the name Guarneri. They spent a lot of time together at Marlboro, and the Guarneri Quartet may be regarded as the musical heirs of the Budapest.[35] Sasha advised them, "Whenever you play string trios and piano quartets, make it a rule that the second violin plays it and not the first. ... If you play only second violin, you get stale for other things." He said that, after he left the Budapest, it took him three years to get back to good playing condition.[36] The newest super-virtuosic New York group, the Emerson String Quartet, takes a similar view, and solves it by the two violinists, Eugene Drucker and Philip Setzer, alternating between first and second.

In later years, the Budapest played fewer concerts and saw each other only for concerts, but still to admiring capacity audiences, but no longer practiced very often either individually or together. Errors in detail were the inevitable result, but the general effect was still good. Sasha felt he wanted to share what he was still learning, but Joe wanted to stay as he was.[37]

Conclusion[wysig | wysig bron]

In January 1965 the group spent twelve days recording Dvořák's F major "American" Quartet and Smetana's E minor Quartet "From My Life". Joe had major intonation problems during the sessions, and Mischa had trouble with his back. A recording of the Dvořák was spliced together from multiple takes and published, but the players refused to accept a similar splice of the Smetana. Then Mischa, Boris and the Guarneri performed and recorded Tchaikovsky's D minor Sextet “Souvenir de Florence” with success. Immediately thereafter Mischa needed back surgery, which had troubled him since 1930. The operation failed, as did a second procedure. He never played again but he did teach extensively, including 25 summers at the Marlboro Music Festival, until his death on October 3, 1985 in Buffalo, New York.[38][39]

In 1977, Sasha abruptly left Marlboro. He never explained why, but he and Serkin remained fast friends. In 1969, Boris died of cancer. In 1974, Joe suffered a fatal heart attack. In 1993 Sasha succumbed to heart failure, having played almost to the end.[39]

The Budapest String Quartet had a huge influence on chamber music in the United States and internationally. When they relocated to the U.S. in the late 1930s, it was hard to attract large audiences. The concerts in Washington and New York, the radio broadcasts and the many records gradually raised audience numbers, made them famous and wealthy, and set high performance standards for later quartet and other chamber groups to follow and even improve upon.[40]

Jascha Heifetz was once quoted as saying: "One Russian is an anarchist. Two Russians are a chess game. Three Russians are a revolution. Four Russians are the Budapest String Quartet."[41]

Recordings[wysig | wysig bron]

The following listings begin with 1932; this is the year in which Josef Roisman became the quartet's leader as 1st Violin, replacing Emil Hauser, and Alexander Schneider joined the quartet as 2nd violin. Thus with the exception of István Ipolyi, who stayed until 1936, the quartet had nearly completed its transformation to its relatively stable line-up of four Russians, and achieved its long-lasting reputation.

Although most entries in the following lists are taken either from actual LPs and CDs and their liner notes or from trustworthy print or online sources, the lists are supplemented by a discography prepared by Sony Classical,[42] apparently for their own use in identifying stock numbers. However this Sony discography contains a number of errors in identifying recording dates, personnel, and in some instances even compositions and composers. All information from this Sony discography as shown below that could not be verified from another source is preceded by an asterisk [*] as being possibly questionable.

Square brackets indicate the initials of the violist, or of the second violinist; e.g., [Va=II] indicates István Ipolyi as violist. Several recording dates are either unspecified or unknown. All of the earlier recordings were first issued as shellac 78 rpm records, many later reissued as vinyl LPs, and subsequently in CD format. First issue of the late recordings was directly to LP format. All recordings are monophonic unless specified as stereo.

Recordings for HMV/Victor, 1932 through 1938[wysig | wysig bron]

1st Violin: Josef Roisman; 2nd Violin: Alexander Schneider; Viola: István Ipolyi or Boris Kroyt; Cello: Mischa Schneider

  • Bartók: Quartet No. 2 in A minor, Op. 17 (rec 25/4/1936[43] [*Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643).
  • Beethoven: Quartet No. 2 in G major, Op. 18 No. 2 (rec 1/6/1938[43] [*Va=BK]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-35240).
  • Beethoven: Quartet No. 3 in D major, Op. 18 No. 3 (rec 30/4/1935[43] [*Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-35240).
  • Beethoven: Quartet No. 8 in E minor, Op. 59 'Rasumovsky' No. 2 (rec 24/4/1935[44] [Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643, CD reissue *Sony SBK-47665, *Portrait SBK-46545, Biddulph 80222).
  • Beethoven: Quartet No. 13 in B flat major, Op. 130 (rec 10/8/1933 & 4/4/1934[44] (or 4/5?/1934)[43] [Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643, CD reissue Biddulph 80222).
  • Brahms: Quartet No. 2 in A minor, Op. 51 No. 2 (rec 30/4-1/5/1935 [43] [Va=II]; CD reissue Biddulph LAB-120/1).
  • Brahms: Quartet No. 3 in B flat major Op. 67 (rec 15,17,18/11/1933 (or same dates in 1932?)[43] [Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643, CD reissue *Portrait MPK-45553, Biddulph LAB-120/1).
  • Brahms: String Quintet No. 1 in F major, Op. 88, with Alfred Hobday (rec 8/2/1937[43] [Va=BK]; CD reissue Biddulph LAB-120/1).
  • Brahms: String Quintet No. 2 in G major, Op. 111, with Hans Mahlke (rec 15,17,18/11/1932 [43] [Va=II]; CD reissue Biddulph LAB-120/1).
  • Brahms: String Sextet in G major, Op. 36, with Alfred Hobday & Anthony Pini (rec 8/2/1937[43] [Va=BK]; CD reissue Biddulph LAB-120/1).
  • Mendelssohn: Quartet No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 12 (rec 29/4/1935[43] [Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643).
  • Mozart: Quartet No. 19 in C major, K 465 'Dissonance' (rec 14/11/1932[43] [Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-33324, *Odyssey Y3-35240, CD reissue EMI CDH-63697).
  • Mozart: Quartet No. 20 in D major, K 499 'Hoffmeister' (rec 5/4/1934[43] [Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643, CD reissue EMI CDH-63697).
  • Mozart: Quartet No. 23 in F major, K 590 (rec 29/4/1935[43] [*Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-35240).
  • Mozart: Clarinet Quintet in A major, K 581 with Benny Goodman (rec 25/4/1938[43] [Va=BK]; CD reissue EMI CDH-63697; Naxos Hist 8.111238).
  • Schubert: Quartettsatz in C minor, D 703 (DB 2221) (rec 4/4/1934[43] [*Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643)
  • Sibelius: Quartet in D minor, Op. 56 Voces Intimae (rec 8/8/1933[43] [Va=II] Sibelius Society Volume 3).
  • Wolf: Italian Serenade in G major (1887) (rec 18/11/1932[43] [*Va=II]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y4-34643).

Opnames vir Columbia van 1940[wysig | wysig bron]

Die Boedapest Strykkwartet (1944)

1ste Viool: Josef Roisman; 2de Viool: Alexander Schneider, Edgar Ortenberg, of Jac Gorodetzky; Altviool: Boris Kroyt; Tjello: Mischa Schneider

  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 1 in F majeur, Op. 18 No. 1:
  • opgeneem 9/9/1940[45] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony MH2K-62870.
  • opgeneem 5-9/5/1952[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue CBS MP2K-52531, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1958[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M3S-606; CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 2 in G majeur, Op. 18 No. 2:
  • opname; 1938: sien HMV/Victor, supra.
  • opgeneem 5-9/5/1952[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue CBS MP2K-52531, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1958[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M3S-606; CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 3 in D majeur, Op. 18 No. 3:
  • opgeneem 1935: see HMV/Victor, above.
  • opgeneem (opg.) 29/11/1951[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue CBS MP2K-52531, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1958[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M3S-606; CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 4 in C mineur, Op. 18 No. 4:
  • opg. 9-10/1/1941[45] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony MH2K-62870.
  • opg. 2/12/1951[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue CBS MP2K-52531, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1958[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M3S-606; CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 5 in A majeur, Op. 18 No. 5:
  • (slegs Minuet):[48] opg 15/9/1941[49] [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking Sony MH2K-62873.
  • opg. 2/5/1951[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue CBS MP2K-52531, United Archives NUA01.
  • (stereo opname 1958[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M3S-606); CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 6 in B-moll majeur, Op. 18 No. 6
  • opg. 2/4/1945[45] [2V=EO]; CD reissue Sony MH2K-62870.
  • opg. 26/11/1951[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue CBS MP2K-52531, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1958[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M3S-606; CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 7 in F majeur, Op. 59 'Razoemofski' No. 1:
  • opg. 1930s: sien HMV/Victor, supra.
  • opg. 5-9/5/52[46] [2V=JG]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-33316; CD reissue United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 17-19/11/1959[50] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony SBK-46545, Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Quartet No. 8 in E minor, Op. 59 'Razoemofski' No. 2:
  • opg. 1935: sien HMV/Victor, supra.
  • opg. ?/5/1951[46] [2V=JG]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-33316; CD reissue United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 17-19/11/1959[50] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony SBK-46545, Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 9 in C majeur, Op. 59 'Razoemofski' No. 3:
  • opg. 15/9/1941[45] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony MH2K-62870, *Sony SBK-47665.
  • opg. 28/11/1951[46] [2V=JG]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-33316; CD reissue *Sony MPK-45551, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 16/5/1960[51] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony SBK-47665, Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 10 in E-moll majeur, Op. 74 'Harp':
  • *opg. tussen 1940-44 [*2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking *Sony SBK-47665.
  • op. ?/5/1951[46] [2V=JG]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-33316, *Odyssey Y3-35240; CD reissue *Sony MPK-45551, United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 17/5/1960[51] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony SBK-47665, CBS MPK-45551, Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 11 in F mineur, Op. 95 'Serioso':
  • opg. 5/12/1941[45] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony MH2K-62870.
  • opg. 2/12/1951[46] [2V=JG]; *LP reissue Odyssey Y3-33316; CD reissue United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1960[47] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony SBK-46545, CBS MPK-45551, Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 12 in E-moll majeur, Op. 127:
  • opg. 26/2/1942[49] [2V=AS]; CD reissue Sony MH2K-62873.
  • opg. 5-9/5/1952[46] [2V=JG]; CD reissue United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1961[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M5S-677; CD reissue Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 13 in B-moll majeur, Op. 130:
  • op. 1933-34: sien HMV/Victor, above.
  • opg. 3/5/1951[46] [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1961[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M5S-677; heruitreiking op CD Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 14 in C# mineur, Op. 131:
  • opgeneem 9/9 & 21/10/1940[49] [2V=AS]; heruitreiking op CD Sony MH2K-62873.
  • opg. 4-6/12/1951[46] [2V=JG]; op CD heruitgereik United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1961[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M5S-677; heruitgereik op CD Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 15 in A mineur, Op. 132:
  • opg. 13-14/4/1942[49] [2V=AS]; heruitreiking op CD Sony MH2K-62873.
  • opg. 26-28/5/1952[46] [2V=JG]; heruitreiking op CD United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opn. 1961[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M5S-677; heruitreiking op CD Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 16 in F majeur, Op. 135:
  • opg 9-10/9/1940[49] [2V=AS]; heruitreiking op CD Sony MH2K-62873.
  • opg. 27/11/1951[46] [2V=JG]; heruitreiking op CD United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 1960[47] [2V=AS]; LP Col M5S-677; heruitreiking op CD Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Grosse Fuge in B-moll majeur, Op. 133:
  • opname - 1920s met verskillende personeel[52]
  • opg. 7/5/1951[46] [2V=JG]; heruitreiking op CD United Archives NUA01.
  • stereo opname 2/5/1961[51] [2V=AS]; heruitreiking op CD Sony SBK-47665, CBS MPK-45551, Sony 88697776782.
  • Beethoven: Strykkwintet in C majeur, Op. 29, met Milton Katims: opgeneem op 23/4/1945[45] [2V=EO]; heruitreiking op CD Sony MH2K-62870.
  • Beethoven: Kwintet in E-moll majeur vir klavier en blaasinstrumente, Op. 16 (weergawe vir klavier en stryktrio), met Mieczysław Horszowski: LP Col MS-6473.
  • Brahms: Kwartet No. 1 in C mineur, Op. 51 No. 1: stereo opname 1963 [2V=AS]; heruitreiking op CD CBS MPK-45686.
  • Brahms: Kwartet No. 2 in A mineur, Op. 51 No. 2: LP Col M2S-734.
  • Brahms: Kwartet No. 3 in B-moll majeur, Op. 67: stereo opname 1963 [2V=AS]; heruitgereik op CD CBS MPK-45553.
  • Brahms: Klavierkwartet No. 2 in A majeur, Op. 26, met Clifford Curzon: opg. 1952 [2V=JG]; LP Col ML-4630; CD heruitreiking Naxos Hist 8.110306.
  • Brahms: Klavierkwintet in F mineur, Op. 34:
  • met Clifford Curzon: opg. 1950 [2V=JG]; LP Col ML-4336; heruitgereik op CD Naxos Hist 8.110307.
  • met Rudolf Serkin: stereo opname 1963 [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking CBS MPK-45686.
  • Brahms: Klarinetkwintet in B mineur, Op. 115, met David Oppenheim (klarinettis): stereo opname 1959 [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking CBS MPK-45553.
  • Debussy: Kwartet in G mineur, Op. 10: CD heruitreiking CBS MPK-44843.
  • Dvořák: Kwartet No. 12 in F majeur, Op. 96 'American': stereo opname 1965 [2V=AS]; LP Col M-32792.
  • Dvořák: Strykkwintet No. 3 in E-moll majeur, Op. 97, met Walter Trampler: LP Col M-32792.
  • Dvořák: Klavierkwintet in A majeur, Op. 81, met Clifford Curzon: opgeneem 1953 [2V=JG]; LP Col ML-4825; CD heruitreiking op Naxos Hist 8.110307.
  • Haydn: Kwartet in G majeur, Op. 76 No. 1: opg. 1954 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UAR-003.
  • Haydn: Kwartet in D mineur, Op. 76 No. 2 'Quinten': opg. 1954 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UAR-003.
  • Haydn: Kwartet in C majeur, Op. 76 No. 3 'Keiser': opg. 1954 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UAR-003.
  • Haydn: Kwartet in B-moll majeur, Op. 76 No. 4 'Sunrise': opg. 1954 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UAR-003.
  • Haydn: Kwartet in D majeur, Op. 76 No. 5: opg. 1954 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UAR-003.
  • Haydn: Kwartet in E-moll majeur, Op. 76 No. 6: opg 1954 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UAR-003.
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 14 in G majeur, K 387: opg. 1953 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking Sony SM2K-47219.
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 15 in D mineur, K 421: opg. 1953 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking Sony SM2K-47219.
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 16 in E-moll majeur, K 428: opg. 1950 [2V=JG]; CD heruitreiking Sony SM2K-47219.
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 17 in B-moll majeur, K 458 'Die Jag': opg. 1953 [2V=JG]; heruitgereik op CD Sony SM2K-47219.
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 18 in A majeur, K 464: opgeneem 1953 [2V=JG]; Heruitgereik op CD Sony SM2K-47219.
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 19 in C majeur, K 465 'Dissonant': opgeneem 1953 [2V=JG]; Heruitgereik op CD Sony SM2K-47219.
  • Mozart: Strykkwintet No. 1 in B-moll majeur, K 174:
  • met Walter Trampler: opg. 1956 [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking Sony SM3K-46527.
  • met Walter Trampler: stereo opname 1965-1966 [2V=AS]; LP Col D3S-747; Heruitgereik op CD Sony CSCR 8346.
  • Mozart: Strykkwintet No. 2 in C mineur, K 406:
  • met Milton Katims: opg. 1946 [2V=EO]; heruitgereik op CD Sony SM3K-46527.
  • met Walter Trampler: stereo opname 1965-1966 [2V=AS]; LP Col D3S-747; heruitgereik op CD Sony CSCR 8346.
  • Mozart: Strykkwintet No. 3 in C majeur, K 515:
  • met Milton Katims: opg. 1945 [2V=EO]; heruitgereik op CD Sony SM3K-46527.
  • met Walter Trampler: stereo opname 1965-1966 [2V=AS]; LP Col D3S-747; heruitgereik op CD Sony CSCR 8346.
  • Mozart: Strykkwintet No. 4 in G mineur, K 516:
  • met Milton Katims: opg. 1941 [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking Sony SM3K-46527.
  • met Walter Trampler: stereo opname 1965-1966 [2V=AS]; LP Col D3S-747; CD heruitreiking Sony CSCR 8346.
  • Mozart: Strykkwintet No. 5 in D majeur, K 593:
  • met Milton Katims: rec 1946 [2V=EO]; heruitgereik op CD Sony SM3K-46527.
  • met Walter Trampler: stereo opname 1965-1966 [2V=AS]; LP Col D3S-747; heruitgereik op CD Sony CSCR 8346.
  • Mozart: Strykkwintet No. 6 in E-moll majeur, K 614:
  • met Milton Katims: opn. 1949 [2V=JG]; CD heruitr. Sony SM3K-46527.
  • met Walter Trampler: stereo opname 1965-1966 [2V=AS]; LP Col D3S-747; CD heruitreiking Sony CSCR 8346.
  • Mozart: Klavierkwartet in G mineur, K 478:
  • Mozart: Klavierkwartet in E-moll majeur, K 493:
  • met George Szell: opn. 1946 [2V=EO]; CD heruitr. CBS MPK-47685, Naxos Hist 8.111238.
  • met Mieczysław Horszowski: stereo opn. 1963 [2V=AS]; LP Col MS-6683.
  • Mozart: Klarinetkwintet in A majeur, K 581 'Stadler', met David Oppenheim (klarinettis): stereo opn. 1959 [2V=AS]; CD heruitr. Sony SM3K-46527.
  • Mozart: Serenade in G majeur, K 525 'Eine kleine Nachtmusik' [strykkwintet weergawe, met Julius Levine, kontrabas ]: stereo opn. 1959 [2V=AS]; CD heruitr. Sony SM3K-46527.
  • Ravel: Kwartet in F majeur (1902–03): CD heruitr. CBS MPK-44843.
  • Schubert: Kwartet in A mineur, D 804 'Rosamunde': opg. 1953 [2V=JG]; CD heruitr. CBS MPK-45696.
  • Schubert: Kwartet in D mineur, D 810 'Dood en die Meisie': opg. 1953 [2V=JG]; CD heruitr. CBS MPK-45696.
  • Schubert: Kwartet in G Majeur, D 887: opgeneem 1953 [2V=JG]; LP heruitr. Odyssey Y3-33320.
  • Schubert: Strykkwintet in C majeur, D 956, met Benar Heifetz, tjello: opgeneem 16/9/1941 [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking United Archives UPC 3760138170262.
  • Schubert: Klavierkwintet in A majeur, D 667 'Die Forel':
  • met Mieczysław Horszowski en Julius Levine: CD heruitreiking Sony SBK-46343.
  • met Mieczysław Horszowski en Georges E. Moleux: opgeneem op 8/5/1950; LP Philips SBR 6220; CD heruitreiking United Archives UPC 3760138170262.
  • Schumann: Klavierkwintet in E-moll majeur, Op. 44:
  • met Clifford Curzon: opname 1951 [2V=JG]; LP Col ML-4426; op CD heruitgereik op Naxos Hist 8.110306.
  • met Rudolf Serkin: stereo opname 1963 [2V=AS]; CD heruitreiking CBS MYK-37256.

Lukrake lewendige opnames[wysig | wysig bron]

1ste Viool: Josef Roisman; 2de Viool: Alexander Schneider of Edgar Ortenberg; Altviool: Boris Kroyt; Tjello: Mischa Schneider

  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 1 in F majeur, Op. 18, No. 1 (lewendig opgeneem 23 Maart 1944 [2V=EO] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitgereik Bridge 9342 A/B).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 2 in G majeur, Op. 18, No. 2 (lewendig opgeneem 23 April 1944 [2V=EO] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9342 A/B).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 3 in D majeur, Op. 18, No. 3 (lewendig opgeneem 9 Maart 1944 [2V=EO] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9342 A/B).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 4 in C mineur, Op. 18, No. 4 (lewendig opgeneem 30 Maart 1962 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9342 A/B).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 5 in A majeur, Op. 18, No. 5 (lewendig opgeneem 1 November 1943 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9342 A/B).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 6 in B-moll majeur, Op. 18, No. 6 (lewendig opgeneem November 11, 1960 [2V=AS] at Library of Congress; CD reissue Bridge 9342 A/B).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 7 in F majeur, Op. 59, No. 1 (lewendig opgeneem 26 Oktober 1941 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9099 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 8 in E mineur, Op. 59, No. 2 (lewendig opgeneem 1 April 1960 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9099 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 9 in C majeur, Op. 59, No. 3 (lewendig opgeneem 6-7 Maart 1946 [2V=EO] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9099 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 10 in E-moll majeur, Op. 74 (lewendig opgeneem 7 September 1941 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9099 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 11 in F mineur, Op. 95 (lewendig opgeneem 3 Maart 1940 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9099 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 12 in E-moll majeur, Op. 127 (lewendig opgeneem 15 Maart 1941 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9072 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 13 in B-moll majeur, Op. 130 (lewendig opgeneem 7 April 1960 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9072 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 14 in C-skerp mineur, Op. 131 (lewendig opgeneem 7 Mei 1943 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9072 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 15 in A mineur, Op. 132 (lewendig opgeneem 20 Desember 1945 [2V=EO] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9072 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Kwartet No. 16 in F majeur, Op. 135 (lewendig opgeneem 16 Maart 1943 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9072 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Grosse Fuge (Afrikaans: Groot Fuga) in B-moll majeur, Op. 133 (lewendig opgeneem, 7 April 1960 [2V=AS] by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Bridge 9072 A/C).
  • Beethoven: Klaviertrio No. 9 in G majeur, Op. 121a 'Kakadu Variasies', met George Szell (lewendig opgeneem, 16 Mei 1946 by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitreiking Intaglio INCD 7191).
  • Dvořák: Klavierkwintet in A majeur, Op. 81, met Artur Balsam (lewendig opgeneem 1959 [2V=AS] by New York; CD heruitreiking Documents LV 931/32).
  • Mozart: Kwartet No. 16 in E-moll majeur, K 428 (lewendig opgeneem 1959 [2V=AS] by New York; CD heruitreiking Documents LV 931/32).
  • Schubert: Kwartet in D mineur, D 810 'Dood en die Meisie' (lewendig opgeneem 1959 [2V=AS] by New York; CD heruitreiking Documents LV 931/32).
  • Schubert: Klavierkwintet in A majeur, D 667 'Die Forel', met George Szell (lewendig opgeneem, 16 Mei 1946 by die Biblioteek van die VSA Kongres; CD heruitgereik Intaglio INCD 7191).

Bronne[wysig | wysig bron]

  • Brandt, Nat (1993). Con Brio: Four Russians Called the Budapest String Quartet. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-508107-2. 
  • R.D. Darrell, The Gramophone Shop Encyclopedia of Recorded Music (New York 1936).
  • E. Sackville-West and D. Shawe-Taylor, The Record Year 2 (Collins, Londen 1953).
  • Photograph in R. Stowell (Red), Cambridge Companion to the String Quartet (2003).
  • CD Biddulph 80222-2 (P)2005, UPC 744718022229. [1933-1935 Beethoven recordings (78rpm)]
  • CD Sony MH2K-62870 2-disc set (P)1997, UPC 074646287026; and CD Sony MH2K-62873 2-disc set (P)1997, UPC 0074646287323. [1940-1945 Beethoven recordings (78rpm)]
  • CD United Archives NUA01 8-disc set (P)2010, UPC 5494239160010 [1951-1952 mono Beethoven recordings (vinyl LP)]
  • CD Sony Classical Masters 8-disc set (P)&(C)2010, UPC 886977767821. [1958-1961 stereo Beethoven recordings (vinyl LP)]
  • CD Sony SBK 46545 (C)1991 UPC 07464465452; and CD SBK 47665 (C)1991 UPC 07464476652. [1959-1961 stereo Beethoven recordings (vinyl LP)]

Verwysings[wysig | wysig bron]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Brandt (1993) pp 32–38
  2. Brandt bl. 50
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 Brandt pp 62–63
  4. Alan Kelly: The Gramophone Company Limited His Master's Voice Matrix Series prefixed Bb/Cc Recorded by Various Experts for Head Office 15 March 1921 to 31 December 1930. August, 2000.
  5. Brandt pp 38–40
  6. 6,0 6,1 Brandt pp 27–31
  7. 7,0 7,1 Brandt pp 41–42
  8. Nat Brandt maak melding van Son se dood in Auschwitz in "Con Brio"; dit was die eerste keer ontdek en ingeskryf op Joods Community Monument en die Duitse Wikipedia in 2012; Sien die inskrywing vir Henri Son by Joods Community Monument welke 'n afskrif insluit van sy Amsterdamse polisieregistrasiekaart.
  9. Brandt pp 42–53
  10. Brandt pp 50–53
  11. Brandt pp 52–53
  12. Brandt pp 53–59
  13. Brandt pp 59–62
  14. Brandt pp 60–62
  15. Brandt pp 64–78
  16. Brandt pp 78–80
  17. Brandt pp 52, 84, 95, 96
  18. Brandt pp 3–6, 81–83
  19. Brandt pp 86–88
  20. Brandt pp 12–26
  21. Brandt pp 14–15
  22. Brandt pp 89–91
  23. Brandt pp 91–93
  24. Brandt pp 97–102
  25. Brandt pp 102–104
  26. Brandt pp 101–109
  27. Brandt pp 109–113
  28. Brandt pp 113–115
  29. Brandt pp 110–118
  30. Brandt pp 119–122
  31. 31,0 31,1 Brandt pp 122–126
  32. Brandt pp 167–171
  33. Brandt pp 171–174
  34. Brandt pp 174–177
  35. 35,0 35,1 35,2 Brandt pp 177–185
  36. Brandt p 99
  37. Brandt pp 186–189
  38. Bernard Holland, "MISCHA SCHNEIDER DIES AT 81; CELLIST FOR BUDAPEST QUARTET", The New York Times, October 5, 1985
  39. 39,0 39,1 Brandt pp 190–195
  40. Brandt pp 196–203
  41. Brandt dust jacket
  42. The Sony Classical discography is presented as Appendix 2 in Brandt, Nat (1993). Con Brio: Four Russians Called the Budapest String Quartet. Oxford University Press, USA.
  43. 43,00 43,01 43,02 43,03 43,04 43,05 43,06 43,07 43,08 43,09 43,10 43,11 43,12 43,13 43,14 43,15 43,16 "Recording & Discography - Budapest String Quartet & its members...", compiled by Youngrok Lee "Archived copy". Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 2011-07-15. Besoek op 2010-08-13. 
  44. 44,0 44,1 CD Biddulph 80222-2 (P)2005, UPC 744718022229: Budapest String Quartet: Beethoven String Quartets Op. 59 No. 2, Op. 130.
  45. 45,0 45,1 45,2 45,3 45,4 45,5 CD Sony Classical Masterworks Heritage Mono Era MH2K-62870 2-disc set (P)1997, UPC 074646287026: 1940s mono recordings: Beethoven String Quartets Op. 18 Nos. 1, 4 & 6; Op. 59 No. 3 "Razumovsky"; Op. 95 "Serioso"; String Quintet Op. 29: Budapest String Quartet, Milton Katims, viola.
  46. 46,00 46,01 46,02 46,03 46,04 46,05 46,06 46,07 46,08 46,09 46,10 46,11 46,12 46,13 46,14 46,15 46,16 CD United Archives NUA01 8-disc set (P)2010, UPC 5494239160010: Beethoven: The Complete String Quartets: Budapest String Quartet 1951-1952.
  47. 47,00 47,01 47,02 47,03 47,04 47,05 47,06 47,07 47,08 47,09 47,10 47,11 CD Sony Classical Masters 8-disc set (P)&(C)2010, UPC 886977767821: The Budapest String Quartet plays Beethoven: The Complete String Quartets. (Recording dates provided are limited to years only.)
  48. According to booklet notes written by Harris Goldsmith this Op. 18 No. 5 Minuet was recorded alone, with one repeat omitted, to fill the final 78rpm side of Op. 59 No. 3. No mention is made of it, but there appears to be no other recording of the entire quartet Op. 18 No. 5 prior to the 1951-1952 sessions.
  49. 49,0 49,1 49,2 49,3 49,4 CD Sony Classical Masterworks Heritage Mono Era MH2K-62873 2-disc set (P)1997, UPC 0074646287323: 1940s mono recordings: Beethoven String Quartets Op. 127, Op. 131, Op. 132, Op. 135, Minuet from Op. 18 No. 5: Budapest String Quartet.
  50. 50,0 50,1 CD Sony Classical Essential Classics Chamber Music SBK 46545 (C)1991 UPC 07464465452: Beethoven Strykkwartette Op. 59 No. 1 & 2 "Razoemofski": Boedapest Strykkwartet.
  51. 51,0 51,1 51,2 CD Sony Classical Essential Classics Chamber Music SBK 47665 (C)1991 UPC 07464476652: Beethoven String Kwartette Op. 59 No. 3 "Razoemofsk"; Op. 74 "Harp"; Groot Fuga in B-moll majeur: Boedapest Strykkwartet.
  52. Volgens pamflet notas geskryf vir Biddulph 80222 deur die musikoloog Tully Potter, was die vroeëre Grosse Fuge (DB 1559-60) voor 1928 met Hauser, Pogany, Ipolyi en Son opgeneem.

Eksterne skakels[wysig | wysig bron]